And David sent forth a third part of the people under the hand of Joab, and a third part under the hand of Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother, and a third part under the hand of Ittai the Gittite. And the king said to the people, I will surely go forth with you myself also.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Ittai the Gittite.—Comp. note on Judges 15:19. The arrangement of the army in three divisions was common both among the Israelites (Judges 7:16; Judg. 11:43; 1Samuel 11:11) and their enemies (1Samuel 13:17). Comp. also 2Kings 11:5-6; David proposed to take the chief command in person.Judges 7:16; Judges 9:43; 1 Samuel 11:11; 2 Kings 11:5-6) and with the Philistines also 1 Samuel 13:17.
2Sa 18:1-4. David Reviewing the Armies.
1, 2. David numbered the people that were with him—The hardy mountaineers of Gilead came in great numbers at the call of their chieftains, so that, although without money to pay any troops, David soon found himself at the head of a considerable army. A pitched battle was now inevitable. But so much depending on the life of the king, he was not allowed to take the field in person; and he therefore divided his forces into three detachments under Joab, Abishai, and Ittai, the commander of the foreign guards.Under the hand of Joab, to wit, for his especial conduct and management in the battle: otherwise Joab was the general of all the forces; nor had David yet taken away that power from him, nor was this a time to do it. But such distributions of forces are usual in battles.
I will surely go forth with you myself also, that by my presence I may put life and courage into my soldiers; and because it is fit I should run the same hazards with you, which you do for my sake.
and a third part under the hand of Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother; who was next to Joab in the army, and fought with him against the Syrians and Ammonites, 2 Samuel 10:10,
and a third part under the hand of Ittai the Gittite; of whom see 2 Samuel 15:19; of these two parts consisted the right and left wings of the army:
and the king said unto the people; the soldiers, and particularly the officers:
I will surely go forth with you myself also; in which he seemed very resolute and peremptory; and this he proposed to do, not merely to animate the soldiers with his presence, and to show that he was willing to hazard his life with them, but chiefly for the sake of Absalom, to preserve his life, if possible.And David sent forth a third part of the people under the hand of Joab, and a third part under the hand of Abishai the son of Zeruiah, Joab's brother, and a third part under the hand of Ittai the Gittite. And the king said unto the people, I will surely go forth with you myself also.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)2. sent forth … under the hand of Joab] Better, put … into the hand of Joab, i.e. under his command. The army does not take the field until 2 Samuel 18:6. The division of an army into three bodies seems to have been a common practice. See Jdg 7:16; Jdg 9:43; 1 Samuel 11:11. David intended to take the chief command in person.Verse 2. - A third part. Armies are usually divided into three divisions: a centre and two wings when drawn up for battle; a van, the main body. and a rearguard when on the march. But the Israelites had no settled rule upon the point, and. when occasion required, Joab divided his army into two parts (2 Samuel 10:9, 10). The reason of the threefold division in this case was that Ittai had brought his clan, or taf, with him, and as these would certainly not have fought under an Israelite leader, nor the Israelites under Ittai, David placed all foreigners under his command, while he gave his own nephews the command of the native troops. He thus avoided all jealousies; and Ittai's men, honoured by being made a distinct portion of the army, would feel their reputation at stake, and would rival the Israelites in valour. 1 Samuel 27:3); but they have done so apparently from mere conjecture. The true reading is evidently היּשׁמעאלי, an Ishmaelite, according to 1 Chronicles 2:17, where the name is written Jether, a contracted form of Jithra. From the description given of Abigail as a daughter of Nahash and sister of Zeruiah, not of David, some of the earlier commentators have very justly concluded that Abigail and Zeruiah were only step-sisters of David, i.e., daughters of his mother by Nahash and not by Jesse.
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