For Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah, and came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)For.—And.
Menahem.—Tiglath Pileser II. records in his annals that in his eighth regnal year (i.e., B.C. 738) he took tribute of “Raçunnu (Rezin) the Damascene, and Menihimmè Samerinâ’a”—i.e., Menahem the Samaritan.
Gadi.—Or, a Gadite.
Went up from Tirzah.—Menahem was Zachariah’s general, who at the time was quartered with the troops at Tirzah, near Samaria (1Kings 14:17). On the news of the murder of Zachariah, Menahem marched to tHe capital. The month of Shallum’s reign was probably taken up with preparations for hostilities on both sides. A battle at Samaria decided matters (Josephus). Perhaps, however, Menahem simply entered Samaria with a part of his forces.2 Kings 15:22. It would seem from the present passage to have been on lower ground than Samaria. Joshua 12:24, whether Menahem was of this city, or was now besieging it with an army he had the command of, as Josephus (r) suggests, is not certain; however, hearing what had befallen Zachariah, he came from hence: and came to Samaria; which, according to Bunting (s), was six miles from Tirzah:
and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead; judging he had as good a right to the throne as Shallum had.For Menahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah, and came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria, and slew him, and reigned in his stead.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)14. Menahem the son of Gadi] It has been suggested that Menahem was an officer of king Zechariah and advanced from Tirzah, where he was stationed, to Samaria to avenge the murder of his master. This may have been so, but if the expression ‘before the people’ in verse 10 be correct, it would appear as if Zechariah had few to take his part.
Tirzah] Was made a royal residence by Jeroboam I. (1 Kings 14:17). The site of Tirzah has not been identified, but its beauty is extolled in Song of Solomon 6:4. We learn from 1 Kings 16:17 that it was a fortress capable of standing a siege, and so may have been a military post, and Menahem an officer there.
and reigned in his stead] These words are not represented in the LXX.Verse 14. - For Manahem the son of Gadi went up from Tirzah. Ewald supposes Tirzah to have been the "native city" of Menahem; but this is not stated. According to Josephus (l.s.c.), he was commander-in-chief, and happened to be in Tirzeh at the time. (On the probable site of Tirzeh, see the comment on 1 Kings 14:17.) It was the royal city of the kingdom of the ten tribes from the later part of Jeroboam's reign to the building of Samaria by Omri (see 1 Kings 14:17; 1 Kings 16:6, 8, 15, 23). And came to Samaria, and smote Shallum the son of Jabesh in Samaria - Josephus says that there was a battle, in which Shallum was slain - and slew him, and reigned in his stead. 2 Kings 15:8. "In the thirty-eighth year of Uzziah, Zachariah the son of Jeroboam became king over Israel six months." As Jeroboam died in the twenty-seventh year of Uzziah, according to our remarks on 2 Kings 14:29, there is an interregnum of eleven years between his death and the ascent of the throne by his son, as almost all the chronologists since the time of Usher have assumed. It is true that this interregnum may be set aside by assuming that Jeroboam reigned fifty-one or fifty-three years instead of forty-one, without the synchronism being altered in consequence. but as it is not very probable that the numeral letters נב or נג should be confounded with מא, and as the conflict for the possession of the throne, which we meet with after the very brief reign of Zachariah, when taken in connection with various allusions in the prophecies of Hosea, rather favours the idea that the anarchy broke out immediately after the death of Jeroboam, we regard the assumption of an interregnum as resting on a better foundation than the removal of the chronological discrepancy by an alteration of the text.
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