2 Chronicles 34:13
Also they were over the bearers of burdens, and were overseers of all that worked the work in any manner of service: and of the Levites there were scribes, and officers, and porters.
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(13) Also.And.

They.—The Levitical musicians-

Were over the bearers of burdens.—They probably cheered their labours with song and music; as was the practice in ancient Egypt.

And were overseers.Leaders, conductors; see Note on 2Chronicles 34:12. Notice the honourable position here assigned to the musical guilds of Levites.

And of the Levites . . . porters.—In connection, that is, with the work of restoration. But comp. 1Chronicles 23:4-5. The writer may only intend to say that there were Levitical guilds of “scribes, officers, and porters,” as well as of musicians.

Scribes.1Chronicles 2:55.

34:1-33 Josiah's good reign in Judah. - As the years of infancy cannot be useful to our fellow-creatures, our earliest youth should be dedicated to God, that we may not waste any of the remaining short space of life. Happy and wise are those who seek the Lord and prepare for usefulness at an early age, when others are pursuing sinful pleasures, contracting bad habits, and forming ruinous connexions. Who can express the anguish prevented by early piety, and its blessed effects? Diligent self-examination and watchfulness will convince us of the deceitfulness and wickedness of our own hearts, and the sinfulness of our lives. We are here encouraged to humble ourselves before God, and to seek unto him, as Josiah did. And believers are here taught, not to fear death, but to welcome it, when it takes them away from the evil to come. Nothing hastens the ruin of a people, nor ripens them for it, more than their disregard of the attempts made for their reformation. Be not deceived, God is not mocked. The current and tide of affections only turns at the command of Him who raises up those that are dead in trespasses and sins. We behold peculiar loveliness, in the grace the Lord bestows on those, who in tender years seek to know and to love the Saviour. Hath Jesus, the Day-spring from on high, visited you? Can you trace your knowledge of this light and life of man, like Josiah, from your youth? Oh the unspeakable happiness of becoming acquainted with Jesus from our earliest years!Of the Levites there were scribes - Hereto the word "scribe" has never been used to designate a class (compare 1 Kings 4:3). But here an order of scribes, forming a distinct division of the Levitical body, has been instituted. The class itself probably originated in the reign of Hezekiah (compare Proverbs 25:1); and it is probably to the rise of this class that we are indebted for the preservation of so many prophecies belonging to Hezekiah's time, while the works of almost all previous prophets - Ahijah, Iddo, Shemaiah, Jehu, the son of Hanani, and probably many others - have perished. 2Ch 34:8-18. He Repairs the Temple.

8. in the eighteenth year of his reign … he sent Shaphan—(See on [474]2Ki 22:3-9).

No text from Poole on this verse. Also they were over the bearers of burdens,.... Who carried the timber and stones to the workmen, to look after them, that they were not dilatory, and that the workmen might not stand still for want of materials being brought to them to work with:

and were overseers over all that wrought in any manner of service; whether in the way of masonry, or in that of carpenters, or of such that served them, or in whatsoever way:

and of the Levites there were scribes, and officers, and porters; some to take the account of the money carried in and paid, who were the

scribes, according to Jarchi; and others who looked after the men, and kept them to work, who were the

officers; and others that let them in and out, called


Also they were over the bearers of burdens, and were overseers of all that wrought the work in any manner of service: and of the Levites there were scribes, and officers, and porters.
13. were overseers of all that wrought the work] R.V. set forward all that did the work.

in any manner] R.V. in every manner.

scribes] Transcribers of the Law; Ezra 7:6; Ezra 7:11.

officers] Cp. 2 Chronicles 19:11.

porters] Cp. 1 Chronicles 26:1 ff.Verse 13. - Scribes. Considering the mention of "scribes" in the plural in 1 Kings 4:3, although it stands alone, till, at all events, the time of Hezekiah (as testified by Proverbs 25:1), it is at any rate not improbable that an order of scribes was instituted by Solomon; that it fell into desuetude immediately under the divided kingdom, and, coming into vogue again under Hezekiah, is now mentioned in the natural way we here find it. The mention of the "scribe" in the singular number is of frequent occurrence in the historic books, and in Isaiah (Isaiah 33:18; Isaiah 36:22). The officers. This word reproduces, in the Hebrew, the familiar shoterim of Exodus 5:10 (see also 1 Chronicles 23:3-6). 2 Chronicles 34:6 and 2 Chronicles 34:7 form a connected sentence: And in the cities of Manasseh ..., in their ruins round about, there he pulled down the altars, etc. The tribe of Simeon is here, as in 2 Chronicles 15:9, reckoned among the tribes of the kingdom of Israel, because the Simeonites, although they belonged geographically to the kingdom of Judah, yet in religion remained attached to the worship on the high places practised by the ten tribes; see on 2 Chronicles 15:9. "And unto Naphtali" is added, to designate the kingdom of Israel in its whole extent to the northern frontier of Canaan. The form בתיהם בּחר (in the Keth. divided into two words) gives no suitable sense. R. Sal. explains, timentes in planitie habitare, sed fixerunt in monte domicilia, rendering it "in their mountain-dwellings." This the words cannot mean.

(Note: The lxx translate ἐν τοῖς τόποις αὐτῶν, expressing merely the בתיהם. The Targ. has צדיוּתהון בבית, in domo (s. loco) desolationis eorum.)

The Keri בּחרבתיהם, "with their swords," is suggested by Ezekiel 26:9, and is accepted by D. Kimchi, Abu Melech, and others, and understood to denote instruments with which the altars, groves, and images were cut down. But this interpretation also is certainly incorrect. The word is rather to be pointed בּחרבתיהם, in their wastes (ruins) (cf. Psalm 109:10), and to be taken as an explanatory apposition to בּערי: in the cities of Manasseh ..., namely, in their ruins round about; for the land had been deserted since the times of Shalmaneser, and its cities were in great part in ruins. The statement as to the locality precedes in the form of an absolute sentence, and that which is predicated of it follows in the form of an apodosis with ו consec. (וינתּץ). להדק כּתּת, he dashed to pieces to crush; the form הדק is not a perfect after ל, but an infinitive which has retained the vowel of the perfect; cf. Ew. 238, d.

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