2 Chronicles 12:1
And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(1) When Rehoboam had established the kingdom.—Rather, when Rehoboam’s kingdom had been established. The construction is impersonal: when one had established Rehoboam’s kingdom. The narrative is resumed from 2Chronicles 11:17.

And had strengthened himself.And when he had become strong (hezqāh, an infinitive, used again at 2Chronicles 26:16; Daniel 11:2, and nowhere else).

He forsook the law of the Lordi.e., lapsed into idolatry. (See 1Kings 14:22-24, where the offence is more precisely described.)

All Israel.—The southern kingdom being regarded as the true Israel. (Comp. 2Chronicles 12:6.)

2 Chronicles 12:1. When Rehoboam had established the kingdom — Israel was very much disgraced and weakened by being divided into two kingdoms; yet the kingdom of Judah, having both the temple and the royal city, both the house of David and the house of Aaron, might have done very well if they had continued in the way of their duty: but here we have all out of order there. For Rehoboam forsook the law of the Lord, and all Israel with him — That is, all his people, all Judah, here called Israel, because they walked in the evil ways into which Jeroboam had drawn the kingdom of Israel. Of this defection from God and his service, see 1 Kings 14:22-24. Observe, reader; as long as he thought his throne in an insecure state, he kept to his duty, that he might make God his friend; but when he judged that he was established in his kingdom, he acted as if he thought he had no more occasion for religion. Thus the prosperity of fools destroys them.12:1-16 Rehoboam, forsaking the Lord, is punished. - When Rehoboam was so strong that he supposed he had nothing to fear from Jeroboam, he cast off his outward profession of godliness. It is very common, but very lamentable, that men, who in distress or danger, or near death, seem much engaged in seeking and serving God, throw aside all their religion when they have received a merciful deliverance. God quickly brought troubles upon Judah, to awaken the people to repentance, before their hearts were hardened. Thus it becomes us, when we are under the rebukes of Providence, to justify God, and to judge ourselves. If we have humbled hearts under humbling providences, the affliction has done its work; it shall be removed, or the property of it be altered. The more God's service is compared with other services, the more reasonable and easy it will appear. Are the laws of temperance thought hard? The effects of intemperance will be found much harder. The service of God is perfect liberty; the service of our lusts is complete slavery. Rehoboam was never rightly fixed in his religion. He never quite cast off God; yet he engaged not his heart to seek the Lord. See what his fault was; he did not serve the Lord, because he did not seek the Lord. He did not pray, as Solomon, for wisdom and grace; he did not consult the word of God, did not seek to that as his oracle, nor follow its directions. He made nothing of his religion, because he did not set his heart to it, nor ever came up to a steady resolution in it. He did evil, because he never was determined for good.All Israel with him - i. e., "all Judah and Benjamin" - all the Israelites of those two tribes. CHAPTER 12

2Ch 12:1-12. Rehoboam, Forsaking God, Is Punished by Shishak.

1. when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself—(See on [433]2Ch 11:17). During the first three years of his reign his royal influence was exerted in the encouragement of the true religion. Security and ease led to religious decline, which, in the fourth year, ended in open apostasy. The example of the court was speedily followed by his subjects, for "all Israel was with him," that is, the people in his own kingdom. The very next year, the fifth of his reign, punishment was inflicted by the invasion of Shishak.Rehoboam, forsaking the Lord, is punished by Shishak, 2 Chronicles 12:1-4. Shemaiah reproveth him: he with the princes repenteth; is preserved in his kingdom; but is spoiled of the treasures of the temple, and of his royal palace, 2 Chronicles 12:5-12. His reign and death, and Abijah his son is made king, 2 Chronicles 12:13-16.

No text from Poole on this verse.

And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom,.... Or when the kingdom of Rehoboam was established; the tribes of Judah and Benjamin being firmly attached to him, and great numbers from the other tribes coming over to him, and things going on peaceably and prosperously during the three years that he and his people abode by the pure worship of God:

and had strengthened himself; built fortified cities for the defence of himself and kingdom, 2 Chronicles 11:5, he forsook the law of the Lord; after he had reigned three years, and was become strong, and thought himself safe and secure on the throne, trusting to his strength:

and all Israel with him; the greater part of them following the example of their king; of this defection, and the sins they fell into, see 1 Kings 14:22.

And it came to pass, when Rehoboam had established the kingdom, and had strengthened himself, he forsook the law of the LORD, and {a} all Israel with him.

(a) For such is the inconstancy of the people, that for the most part they follow the vices of their governors.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Ch. 2 Chronicles 12:1-12 (cp. 1 Kings 14:22; 1 Kings 14:25-28). The Invasion of Shishak

1. all Israel] i.e. all the Southern Kingdom; cp. note on 2 Chronicles 11:3. The details of Judah’s apostasy are given, 1 Kings 14:22-24.Verse 1. - When Rehoboam had established the kingdom... strengthened himself; i.e. while insecure and full of apprehensions, Rehoboam walked humbly and surely, but when he thought his object, simply safety, was gained, his true and worse self appeared or reappeared, and, clothed with self-confidence, he forsakes the "Law," to bring sure retribution on himself. All Israel with him. When we turn to the fuller statements of the parallel (1 Kings 14:22-24), we see that the sins that were at work were not those of king merely, but of people, especially in abominations such as those of sodomy and the immoral practices of the "groves," as well as the ecclesiastical and irreligious iniquities of "high places" and "image" worship! 2 Chronicles 11:18-23, information as to Rehoboam's family relationships. - 2 Chronicles 11:18. Instead of בּן we must read, with the Keri, many MSS, lxx, and Vulg., בּת: Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth, the son of David. Among the sons of David (1 Chronicles 3:1-8) no Jerimoth is found. If this name be not another form of יתרעם, 1 Chronicles 3:3, Jerimoth must have been a son of one of David's concubines. Before the name אביחיל, ו must have been dropped out, and is to be supplied; so that Mahalath's father and mother are both named: the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David, and Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse, i.e., David's eldest brother (1 Chronicles 2:13; 1 Samuel 17:13). For Abihail cannot be held to be a second wife of Rehoboam, because 2 Chronicles 11:19, "and she bore," and 2 Chronicles 11:20, "and after her," show that in 2 Chronicles 11:18 only one wife is named. She bare him three sons, whose names occur only here (2 Chronicles 11:19).
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