And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and with of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)1 Samuel 16:12-13. The Lord said, &c. — Spoke secretly by his Spirit to Samuel’s heart; for it is not probable that any audible voice was uttered. Samuel anointed him in the midst of his brethren — This is a perfectly literal translation of the Hebrew, confirmed by the Seventy; and the words seem evidently to imply that he was anointed publicly among his brethren. But though they saw his unction, it is probable they had no idea that he was anointed to the kingdom, but were only told by Samuel that it was to some great service, which they should be informed of hereafter. Samuel certainly was afraid to have it known at present that he was anointed to be king, and therefore would not tell it out among his brethren. And by Eliab’s treatment of David after this, (1 Samuel 17:28,) it appears that he did not know him to be the king elect of God’s people. Thus Jesse only and David understood the whole business; but his brethren would be able to bear witness to the fact of Samuel’s anointing him, which, with other collateral evidences, would be abundantly sufficient to prove David’s right to the kingdom, if need should be. Dr. Waterland proposes to translate the words, from the midst, instead of in the midst; but Houbigant approves of our reading, and thinks the anointing was made publicly, as has just been stated, but that Samuel did not signify, unless to Jesse, the purpose for which he was anointed. The Spirit of the Lord came upon David, &c. — That is, he was immediately endowed with extraordinary gifts of God’s Spirit, as strength, and courage, and wisdom, and other excellent qualities, which prepared him for, and excited him to, noble attempts.He was ruddy; which may be referred either to the colour of his hair; or rather, to the complexion of his face.
Goodly to look to; of a comely but masculine and majestic aspect.
now he was ruddy; which some understand not of the ruddiness of his complexion, or of his cheeks, but of the redness of his hair; the former seems best:
and withal of a beautiful countenance; of comely features: or "beautiful eyes" (e); bright, clear, and sparkling; eyes that are black or blue are reckoned beautiful:
and goodly to look to; of a pleasant countenance, delightful to behold; he carried sweetness as well as majesty in his face; in this he was a type of Christ, Sol 5:10. A beautiful aspect, as well as shape and height, recommended persons for government, as with the Ethiopians, as Aristotle (f) relates; so Agamemnon is represented by Priamus (g) for his personable appearance, as like a king, and fit to be one:
and the Lord said, arise, anoint him, for this is he; that he had spoken to him of, and who it was his pleasure should be anointed king; and therefore, by a secret strong impulse upon his mind, was put upon doing it immediately, without any hesitation or delay.And he sent, and brought him in. Now he was ruddy, and withal of a beautiful countenance, and goodly to look to. And the LORD said, Arise, anoint him: for this is he.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)12. ruddy] The word denotes the red hair and fair skin which are regarded as a mark of beauty in southern countries, where the hair and complexion are generally dark.
of a beautiful countenance, &c.] Lit. “beautiful-eyed and goodly in appearance.” Compare the description of Joseph (Genesis 39:6), and Moses (Exodus 2:2; Acts 7:20, where compare the Gk. ἀστεῖος τῷ Θεῷ with the Sept. here, ἀγαθὸς ὁράσει Κυρίῳ).1 Samuel 16:7, "he thought (lit. he said, sc., in his heart), Surely His anointed is before Jehovah," i.e., surely the man is now standing before Jehovah whom He hath chosen to be His anointed. But Jehovah said to him in the spirit, "Look not at his form and the height of his stature, for I have rejected him: for not as man seeth (sc., do I see); for man looketh at the eyes, and Jehovah looketh at the heart." The eyes, as contrasted with the heart, are figuratively employed to denote the outward form.
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