1 Kings 2:27
So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
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(27) That he might fulfil.—In these words is described, not the purpose, but the effect of Solomon’s action. The prophecy referred to is, of course, that of 1Samuel 2:30-35; 1Samuel 3:11-14, fulfilled by the degradation, in Abiathar’s person, of the house of Ithamar, and the exaltation, or restoration, in Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, to whom, as the elder son of Aaron, the primacy would have seemed naturally to belong. It seems clear from 1Kings 2:35 that Abiathar had hitherto had some superiority, although in the various notices of the two, Zadok’s name stands first; but whether of actual authority, or only of priority of dignity, cannot be determined. While the Tabernacle remained at Gibeon under Zadok’s charge, and the Ark was in Mount Zion under Abiathar, there might, indeed, be something like co-ordination between the two. This, in any case, must have disappeared at the building of the Temple; and the disgrace of Abiathar determined that the undivided dignity should pass to Zadok.

2:26-34 Solomon's words to Abiathar, and his silence, imply that some recent conspiracies had been entered into. Those that show kindness to God's people shall have it remembered to their advantage. For this reason Solomon spares Abiathar's life, but dismisses him from his offices. In case of such sins as the blood of beasts would atone for, the altar was a refuge, but not in Joab's case. Solomon looks upward to God as the Author of peace, and forward to eternity as the perfection of it. The Lord of peace himself gives us that peace which is everlasting.That he might fulfil the word of the L RD - We need not understand this as stating that the fulfillment of the old prophecy was Solomon's motive, or even one of his motives. The reference is to the overruling providence of God, which thus brought about the fulfillment of the prophecy. (Compare Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; Matthew 27:35, etc.) The deposition of Abiathar involved the rejection of the house of Ithamar 1 Chronicles 24:3, to which Eli belonged, and the reestablishment of the high priesthood in the line of Eleazar. 26, 27. unto Abiathar the priest said the king—This functionary, as the counsellor or accomplice of Adonijah, had deserved to share his fate. But partly from regard to his priestly dignity, and partly from his long associations with the late king, Solomon pronounced on him the mitigated sentence of banishment to his country estate at Anathoth, and thereby, as God's vicegerent, deprived him of his office and its emoluments. The sacred writer notices the remarkable fulfilment, Abiathar's degradation from the high priesthood (see on [293]1Ki 4:4), of the doom denounced against the house of Eli (1Sa 2:30). From being priest unto the Lord; either from his office, or at least, from the execution of his office. For some think that he was thrust from his office before David’s death, when Zadok was formerly made priest, i.e. high priest, in his stead, 1 Chronicles 29:22. But that seems to be a mistake; for although that passage immediately follows the history of what was done in the time of David’s life and health, when he was in a capacity of going into the public congregation; yet it manifestly belongs to another time, and was done after it; for he there speaks of Solomon’s

being made king the second time, and he was made king but twice; once undoubtedly before this, 1 Chronicles 23:1; and again 1 Kings 1:39; when David was bedrid, and Adonijah’s usurpation made a second unction necessary. And therefore what is said 1 Chronicles 29:22, of Zadok’s being made priest, was done after Abiathar’s deposition, and upon that occasion.

That he might fulfil the word of the Lord; for what hinders but Solomon might intend this not only as a punishment for his treason, but also as a means to accomplish God’s word?

Concerning the house of Eli, i.e. concerning the translation of the priesthood from the house of Eli, and of Ithamar, unto that of Eleazar; which being threatened eighty years ago, is now executed. So Divine vengeance, though sometimes it be slow, is always sure.

So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the Lord,.... He deposed him from his office of high priest, otherwise I suppose he might officiate as a common priest, at least in some of the branches of it; this was done by his own authority as a king, and not as a prophet, as Bellarmine vainly distinguishes; and not by the authority of the college of the, priests, at the instance of Solomon, as Fortunatus Schacchus says (d) for which there is no foundation:

that he might fulfil the word of the Lord; which he might do intentionally, having knowledge of it, or however eventually:

which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh; of which house Abiathar was, and which, according to that prophecy, was to be demolished, and the priesthood translated from it, which was in the line of lthamar, to another house, in the line of Eleazar; the word of the Lord, referred to, is in 1 Samuel 2:31.

(d) Elaeochrism. Myrothec. l. 3. c. 50. col. 1069.

So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
27. So Solomon thrust out Abiathar] The verb is the same which is used (Genesis 3:24) of the driving out of Adam from Paradise.

fulfil the word of the Lord] The allusion is to 1 Samuel 2:31-36, where it is foretold to Eli that his family, to which Abiathar belonged, should be deprived of the priest’s office, and that a faithful priest should be raised up in their stead. The order of descent from Eli was Eli—Phinehas—Ahitub—Ahimelech—Abiathar. These were of the family of Ithamar. Zadok was of the family of Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:8). This is the first passage in the O.T. where the phrase ‘to fulfil the word of the Lord’ appears.

Verse 27. - So Solomon thrust out Abtathar from being priest unto the Lord, that he might fulfil [Heb. to fulfil "An addition of the narrator, not the intention of Solomon. It is the ἵνα πληρωθῇ of the New Testament." Bahr] the word of the Lord, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh [1 Samuel 2:31-35. Abiathar was the last descendant of the house of Ithamar. With his deposition the high priesthood reverted to the house of Eleazar, and so another "word of the Lord" had its fulfilment (Numbers 25:15).] No one can justly accuse Solomon of unnecessary severity or of cruelty in his treatment of Abiathar. On the occasion of his first conspiracy, Abiathar seems to have escaped even censure. And yet that conspiracy, had it succeeded, would almost certainly have involved Solomon's death (ch. 1:12). He is now found plotting again, for the action of Solomon proves that there had been a second plot. Oriental usages would have justified his death. He is simply warned and banished. 1 Kings 2:27The banishment of Abiathar to his own private possession involved his deposition from the priesthood. And, as the historian adds, thus was the word of the Lord concerning the house of Eli fulfilled (1 Samuel 2:30-33). למלּא corresponds to the New Testament ἵνα πληρωθῇ. For further remarks on this prophecy and its fulfilment, see at 1 Samuel 2:30.

(Note: Nothing is related concerning the subsequent fate of Abiathar, since the death of a high priest who had been deprived of his office was a matter of no importance to the history of the kingdom of God. At any rate, he would not survive his deposition very long, as he was certainly eighty years old already (see Comm. on Sam. p. 267). - The inference which Ewald (Gesch. iii. pp. 269,270) draws from 1 Samuel 2:31-36 as to the manner of his death, namely, that he fell by the sword, is one of the numerous fictions founded upon naturalistic assumptions with which this scholar has ornamented the biblical history.)

Thus was the high-priesthood of the house of Eli extinguished, and henceforth this dignity passed through Zadok into the sole possession of the line of Eleazar.

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