So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest to the LORD; that he might fulfill the word of the LORD, which he spoke concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)That he might fulfil.—In these words is described, not the purpose, but the effect of Solomon’s action. The prophecy referred to is, of course, that of 1Samuel 2:30-35; 1Samuel 3:11-14, fulfilled by the degradation, in Abiathar’s person, of the house of Ithamar, and the exaltation, or restoration, in Zadok, of the house of Eleazar, to whom, as the elder son of Aaron, the primacy would have seemed naturally to belong. It seems clear from 1Kings 2:35 that Abiathar had hitherto had some superiority, although in the various notices of the two, Zadok’s name stands first; but whether of actual authority, or only of priority of dignity, cannot be determined. While the Tabernacle remained at Gibeon under Zadok’s charge, and the Ark was in Mount Zion under Abiathar, there might, indeed, be something like co-ordination between the two. This, in any case, must have disappeared at the building of the Temple; and the disgrace of Abiathar determined that the undivided dignity should pass to Zadok.Matthew 1:22; Matthew 2:15; Matthew 27:35, etc.) The deposition of Abiathar involved the rejection of the house of Ithamar 1 Chronicles 24:3, to which Eli belonged, and the reestablishment of the high priesthood in the line of Eleazar. From being priest unto the Lord; either from his office, or at least, from the execution of his office. For some think that he was thrust from his office before David’s death, when Zadok was formerly made priest, i.e. high priest, in his stead, 1 Chronicles 29:22. But that seems to be a mistake; for although that passage immediately follows the history of what was done in the time of David’s life and health, when he was in a capacity of going into the public congregation; yet it manifestly belongs to another time, and was done after it; for he there speaks of Solomon’s
being made king the second time, and he was made king but twice; once undoubtedly before this, 1 Chronicles 23:1; and again 1 Kings 1:39; when David was bedrid, and Adonijah’s usurpation made a second unction necessary. And therefore what is said 1 Chronicles 29:22, of Zadok’s being made priest, was done after Abiathar’s deposition, and upon that occasion.
That he might fulfil the word of the Lord; for what hinders but Solomon might intend this not only as a punishment for his treason, but also as a means to accomplish God’s word?
Concerning the house of Eli, i.e. concerning the translation of the priesthood from the house of Eli, and of Ithamar, unto that of Eleazar; which being threatened eighty years ago, is now executed. So Divine vengeance, though sometimes it be slow, is always sure.
that he might fulfil the word of the Lord; which he might do intentionally, having knowledge of it, or however eventually:
which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh; of which house Abiathar was, and which, according to that prophecy, was to be demolished, and the priesthood translated from it, which was in the line of lthamar, to another house, in the line of Eleazar; the word of the Lord, referred to, is in 1 Samuel 2:31.So Solomon thrust out Abiathar from being priest unto the LORD; that he might fulfil the word of the LORD, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)27. So Solomon thrust out Abiathar] The verb is the same which is used (Genesis 3:24) of the driving out of Adam from Paradise.
fulfil the word of the Lord] The allusion is to 1 Samuel 2:31-36, where it is foretold to Eli that his family, to which Abiathar belonged, should be deprived of the priest’s office, and that a faithful priest should be raised up in their stead. The order of descent from Eli was Eli—Phinehas—Ahitub—Ahimelech—Abiathar. These were of the family of Ithamar. Zadok was of the family of Eleazar (1 Chronicles 6:8). This is the first passage in the O.T. where the phrase ‘to fulfil the word of the Lord’ appears.Verse 27. - So Solomon thrust out Abtathar from being priest unto the Lord, that he might fulfil [Heb. to fulfil "An addition of the narrator, not the intention of Solomon. It is the ἵνα πληρωθῇ of the New Testament." Bahr] the word of the Lord, which he spake concerning the house of Eli in Shiloh [1 Samuel 2:31-35. Abiathar was the last descendant of the house of Ithamar. With his deposition the high priesthood reverted to the house of Eleazar, and so another "word of the Lord" had its fulfilment (Numbers 25:15).] No one can justly accuse Solomon of unnecessary severity or of cruelty in his treatment of Abiathar. On the occasion of his first conspiracy, Abiathar seems to have escaped even censure. And yet that conspiracy, had it succeeded, would almost certainly have involved Solomon's death (ch. 1:12). He is now found plotting again, for the action of Solomon proves that there had been a second plot. Oriental usages would have justified his death. He is simply warned and banished. 1 Kings 2:22), for the purpose of linking on another clause, answers entirely to the emotional character of the words. "For him, and for Abiathar and Joab:" Solomon said this, because these two men of high rank had supported Adonijah's rebellion and wished to rule under his name. There is no ground for any such alterations of the text as Thenius proposes. - Although Abishag had been only David's nurse, in the eyes of the people she passed as his concubine; and among the Israelites, just as with the ancient Persians (Herod. iii. 68), taking possession of the harem of a deceased king was equivalent to an establishment of the claim to the throne (see at 2 Samuel 12:8 and 2 Samuel 3:7-8). According to 2 Samuel 16:21, this cannot have been unknown even to Bathsheba; but as Adonijah's wily words had disarmed all suspicion, she may not have thought of this, or may perhaps have thought that Abishag was not to be reckoned as one of David's concubines, because David had not known her (1 Kings 1:4).
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