1 Chronicles 9:19
And Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brothers, of the house of his father, the Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle: and their fathers, being over the host of the LORD, were keepers of the entry.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(19) And Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Koran.—Comp. 1Chronicles 26:1, which makes “Meshelemiah son of Kore, of the sons of Asaph” a guild of warders under David.

Ebiasaph—“The Father (i.e., God) gathered,” is a fuller form of Asaph, “He gathered.”

And his brethren, of the house of his father.—That is, the Korahites, as is immediately explained: his kinsmen belonging to his father-house or clan.

The work of the service (of Shallum),—That is, of the guild so called, is defined as that of “wardens of the thresholds of the tent,” that is, of the Temple, which had taken the place of the old Tent of Meeting.

And their fathers, being over the host of the Lord, were keepers of the entry.—“Their fathers” are the ancestors of the Korahite clan of Shallura.

The host of the Lord.—Or, rather, the encampment of Jehovah, means the tabernacle, or Tent of Tryst, which had only one entrance, over which, according to this passage—the Pentateuch is silent—the house of Shallum stood guard. 2Chronicles 31:2 applies the same archaic nomenclature to the Temple in Hezekiah’s reign, speaking of “the gates of the camps of Iahweh.”

1 Chronicles 9:19. Tabernacle — Namely, in time past, when the tabernacle was standing, before the temple was built. Their fathers — The Kohathites. Being over the host of the Lord — When the Israelites were in the wilderness, encamped in a military manner round about the tabernacle, with whom these were then placed. Keepers of the entry — Of the veil by which they entered into the tabernacle; which he calls the entry, because then there were no gates. The meaning is, that all things were now restored to their primitive order; and the several persons took those offices upon them, which their ancestors had before them.9:1-44 Genealogies. - This chapter expresses that one end of recording all these genealogies was, to direct the Jews, when they returned out of captivity, with whom to unite, and where to reside. Here is an account of the good state into which the affairs of religion were put, on the return from Babylon. Every one knew his charge. Work is likely to be done well when every one knows the duty of his place, and makes a business of it. God is the God of order. Thus was the temple a figure of the heavenly one, where they rest not day nor night from praising God, Re 4:8. Blessed be His name, believers there shall, not in turn, but all together, without interruption, praise him night and day: may the Lord make each of us fit for the inheritance of the saints in light.Shallum the son of Kore - A different person from the Shallum of 1 Chronicles 9:17, and with a different office, namely, the guarding the inner doors of the temple. The original Shallum, Shelemaiah, or Meshelemaiah, was a Levite of the time of David 1 Chronicles 26:14. His descendants were still called by his name, but had now a more important charge assigned to them. 18. the king's gate—The king had a gate from his palace into the temple (2Ki 16:18), which doubtless was kept constantly closed except for the monarch's use; and although there was no king in Israel on the return from the captivity, yet the old ceremonial was kept up, probably in the hope that the scepter would, ere long, be restored to the house of David. It is an honor by which Eastern kings are distinguished, to have a gate exclusively devoted to their own special use, and which is kept constantly closed, except when he goes out or returns (Eze 44:2). There being no king then in Israel, this gate would be always shut. Keepers of the gates of the tabernacle; or, who were, to wit, in time past, which is expressed in a like case, 1 Chronicles 9:20, when the tabernacle was standing, before the temple was built. Their fathers; the Kohathites, of whom see on Numbers 4:4. Over the host of the Lord, or, with (as this Hebrew particle is oft used) the host, &c., i.e. when the Israelites were in the wilderness, encamped in a military manner round about the tabernacle, with or among whom these were then placed.

Keepers of the entry, i.e. of the veil by which they entered into the tabernacle; which he calls the entry distinctively, because then there were no gates. The meaning is, that all things were now restored to their primitive order and institution; and the several persons took those places and offices upon them, which their ancestors had before them. And Shallum the son of Kore,.... The same as in 1 Chronicles 9:17 whose pedigree is traced up to Ebiasaph the son of Korah, see Exodus 6:24.

and his brethren, of the house of his father, the Korahites; so called, because they descended from Korah:

were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle; until the temple was built:

and their fathers being over the host of the Lord; the Levites, who were the Lord's army, and whose service is represented as a warfare, Numbers 4:5.

were keepers of the entry; into the tabernacle, that none might enter that were impure; or into the court of the priests, excepting priests; or into the holiest of all, as Kimchi suggests.

And Shallum the son of Kore, the son of Ebiasaph, the son of Korah, and his brethren, of the house of his father, the Korahites, were over the work of the service, keepers of the gates of the {f} tabernacle: and their fathers, being over the host of the LORD, were keepers of the entry.

(f) Their charge was that no one should enter those places, which were only appointed for the priests to minister in.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
19. Song of Solomon of Ebiasaph] By a misreading Shallum (= Meshelemiah; see above) is said to be “of the sons of Asaph” (read “Ebiasaph”) in 1 Chronicles 26:1.

of the house of his father] R.V. of his father’s house.

being over the host of the Lord, were keepers] R.V. had been over the camp of the LORD, keepers. Nothing is said in the Pentateuch of “keepers of the entry to the tabernacle,” and probably in the present passage the entry to the camp, not to the tabernacle, is meant. With this view agrees the mention of Phinehas (1 Chronicles 9:20), for it was the profanation of the camp, not of the tabernacle, which Phinehas avenged (Numbers 25:6-8), thus earning a blessing (Numbers 25:11-13).Verse 19. - Shallum. Marked as a different person from the former of the same name, by the description son of Kore, etc. The pedigree here given enables us to identify the person intended as Shelemiah or Moshelemiah. (comp. 1 Chronicles 6:23, 27; 1 Chronicles 26:1, 14). Keepers of the gates of the tabernacle... of the entry. These are descriptions of "service," not synonymous with those of vers. 17 and 18, where the words וְהַשְּׁעַרִים and בְּשַׁעַר are found, in place of those used here, viz. שֹׁמְרֵי הַסִּפִים לָאֹחֶל and שֹׁמְרֵי הַמָּבוא. They designate the care of the inner entrances of the sacred building. Their fathers were keepers of the entrance to the tabernacle, as these to the inner doors (margin, "thresholds") of the temple. So the following verse points the times of "the fathers." The priests. - The three names Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, and Jachin (1 Chronicles 9:10) denote three classes of priests (cf. 1 Chronicles 24:7, 1 Chronicles 24:17), who accordingly dwelt in Jerusalem. There also dwelt there (1 Chronicles 9:11) Azariah the son of Hilkiah, etc., the prince of the house of God; cf. 2 Chronicles 31:13. This is the Azariah mentioned in 1 Chronicles 6:13, the son of Hilkiah, etc., the grandfather of the Jehozadak who was led captive into Babylon. then in 1 Chronicles 9:12 we have two other heads of the priestly fathers'-houses, with an enumeration of their ancestors, through whom they are traced back to the classes of priests to which they belonged respectively, viz., Adaiah to the class Malchijah (1 Chronicles 24:9), and Maasiai to the class Immer (1 Chronicles 24:14). According to this, therefore, there dwelt at Jerusalem, of the priesthood, the three classes Jedaiah, Jehoiarib, and Jachin, Azariah the prince of the temple, and of the classes Malchijah and Immer, the fathers'-houses Adaiah and Maasiai. In 1 Chronicles 9:13 the whole number is estimated at 1760. A difficulty is raised by the first words of this verse, "And their brethren, heads of their fathers'-houses, 1760," which can hardly be taken in any other sense than as denoting that the number of the heads of the fathers'-houses amounted to 1760. This, however, is not conceivable, as "fathers'-houses" are not single households, but larger groups of related families. Moreover, אחיהם, which is co-ordinate with the heads of the fathers'-houses, can only denote, as in 1 Chronicles 9:6, 1 Chronicles 9:9, the heads of the families which belonged to or constituted the fathers'-houses. To arrive at this meaning, however, we must transpose the words ואחיהם and לבית־אבותם ראשׁים, connecting לבית־אבותם ר with 1 Chronicles 9:12, and אחיהם with the number, thus: heads of fathers'-houses, etc., were those mentioned in 1 Chronicles 9:12, and their brethren 1760 (men), valiant heroes in the work of the service of the house of God. Before מלאכת one would expect the word עשׁי, as in 1 Chronicles 23:24 and Nehemiah 11:12, but its presence is not so absolutely necessary as to warrant us in supposing that it has been dropped out, and in inserting it. מלאכת may be also taken as an accusative of relation, "valiant heroes in reference to the work;" or at most a ל a tso may be supplied before מלאכת, as it might easily have been omitted by a clerical error after the immediately preceding חיל. On comparing our passage with Nehemiah 11:10-14, we find there, if בּן־יויריב in 1 Chronicles 9:10 be altered into יהויריב, the same three classes of priests; but instead of Azariah, Seraiah is prince of the house of God, 1 Chronicles 9:11 : thereafter we have 822 brethren, performing the work of the house (of God). Then follows Adaiah of the class Malchijah (as in the Chronicles), but with the addition, "his brethren 242;" and then Amashai of the class Immer, but with other ancestors than those of the Maasiai of the Chronicles, and with the addition, "and their brethren, valiant heroes, 128;" and finally, Zabdiel Ben Hagdolim as overseer (president over them).

The sum of the three numbers is 1192, as contrasted with the 1760 of the Chronicle.

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