Leviticus 5:6
And he shall bring his trespass offering to the LORD for his sin which he has sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(6) And he shall bring his trespass offering . . . a lamb or a kid of the goats.—Better, a sheep, or a shaggy she-goat (see Leviticus 4:23; Leviticus 4:32). The first thing to be noticed is that the sacrifice is here called (āshām) “trespass offering,” which is the right rendering of the word, and is so translated in thirty-five out of the thirty-six passages in which it is used for a sacrifice. In the verse before us, and in the rest of this section, viz., Leviticus 5:7-13, which treat of this sacrifice, no distinction is made between the ranks of the offenders. There is no special legislation for the high priest, the whole congregation, or the prince, as in the case with the (chātāth) sin offering, which is described in the former chapter. The spiritual officer and temporal sovereign are here on a level with the ordinary layman. There is no scale in the sacrifices corresponding to the position of the sinner. They are all alike to bring the same victim, either sheep or she goat. Though nothing is here said about the sacrificial rites which were to be performed in connection with the victim, in this case it is implied that, apart from the minor deviations here specified, they were to be the same as those in connection with the sin offering. The rule which obtained during the second Temple, is as follows: the trespass offerings were killed, and their blood sprinkled, as is before described in Numbers 4; they were then flayed, the fat and the inwards taken out and salted, and strewed on the fire upon the altar. The residue of this flesh was eaten by the priests in the court, like the sin offerings.

Leviticus 5:6. His trespass-offering — But how come confession and sacrifice to be necessary for him that touched an unclean thing, when such persons were cleansed with simple washing, as appears from Leviticus 11., and Numbers 19.? This place speaks of him that being so unclean did come into the tabernacle, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Numbers 19:13; which if any man did, knowing himself to be unclean, which was the case there, he was to be cut off for it; and if he did it ignorantly, which was the case here, he was, upon discovery of it, to offer this sacrifice.5:1-13 The offences here noticed are, 1. A man's concealing the truth, when he was sworn as a witness to speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth. If, in such a case, for fear of offending one that has been his friend, or may be his enemy, a man refuses to give evidence, or gives it but in part, he shall bear his iniquity. And that is a heavy burden, which, if some course be not taken to get it removed, will sink a man to hell. Let all that are called at any time to be witnesses, think of this law, and be free and open in their evidence, and take heed of prevaricating. An oath of the Lord is a sacred thing, not to be trifled with. 2. A man's touching any thing that was ceremonially unclean. Though his touching the unclean thing only made him ceremonially defiled, yet neglecting to wash himself according to the law, was either carelessness or contempt, and contracted moral guilt. As soon as God, by his Spirit, convinces our consciences of any sin or duty, we must follow the conviction, as not ashamed to own our former mistake. 3. Rash swearing, that a man will do or not do such a thing. As if the performance of his oath afterward prove unlawful, or what cannot be done. Wisdom and watchfulness beforehand would prevent these difficulties. In these cases the offender must confess his sin, and bring his offering; but the offering was not accepted, unless accompanied with confession and humble prayer for pardon. The confession must be particular; that he hath sinned in that thing. Deceit lies in generals; many will own they have sinned, for that all must own; but their sins in any one particular they are unwilling to allow. The way to be assured of pardon, and armed against sin for the future, is to confess the exact truth. If any were very poor, they might bring some flour, and that should be accepted. Thus the expense of the sin-offering was brought lower than any other, to teach that no man's poverty shall ever bar the way of his pardon. If the sinner brought two doves, one was to be offered for a sin-offering, and the other for a burnt-offering. We must first see that our peace be made with God, and then we may expect that our services for his glory will be accepted by him. To show the loathsomeness of sin, the flour, when offered, must not be made grateful to the taste by oil, or to the smell by frankincense. God, by these sacrifices, spoke comfort to those who had offended, that they might not despair, nor pine away in their sins. Likewise caution not to offend any more, remembering how expensive and troublesome it was to make atonement.His trespass offering - Rather, as his forfeit, that is, whatever is due for his offence. The term "trespass-offering" is out of place here, since it has become the current designation for a distinct kind of sin-offering mentioned in the next section (see Leviticus 5:14 note).

A lamb or a kid of the goats - A sheep Leviticus 4:32 or a shaggy she-goat Leviticus 4:23.

6-14. he shall bring his trespass offering unto the Lord for his sins which he hath sinned—A trespass offering differed from a sin offering in the following respects: that it was appointed for persons who had either done evil unwittingly, or were in doubt as to their own criminality; or felt themselves in such a special situation as required sacrifices of that kind [Brown]. The trespass offering appointed in such cases was a female lamb or kid; if unable to make such an offering, he might bring a pair of turtledoves or two young pigeons—the one to be offered for a sin offering, the other for a burnt offering; or if even that was beyond his ability, the law would be satisfied with the tenth part of an ephah of fine flour without oil or frankincense. Quest. How comes confession and a sacrifice to be necessary for him that touched an unclean thing, when such persons were cleansed with simple washing, as appears from Le 11 Num 19?

Answ. This place speaks of him that being so unclean did come into the tabernacle, as may be gathered by comparing this place with Numbers 19:13, which if any man did, knowing himself to be unclean, which was the case there, he was to be cut off for it; and if he did it ignorantly, which is the case here, Leviticus 4:2, he was upon discovery of it to offer this sacrifice. Interpreters dispute much what the difference is between sins and trespasses, and between sin-offerings and trespass-offerings. Some make the one for omissions, the other for commissions; the one for greater, the other for lesser sins; the one for known sins, the other for sins of ignorance; in all which there seems to be more curiosity than solidity. Either they seem to be the same, as may be gathered from Leviticus 4:6, where those two words, asham and theta, which they so carefully and critically distinguish, are both used concerning the trespass-offerings, and from Leviticus 4:9; or the difference may be this, that sin-offerings were more indefinite or general, being for any particular sin, and trespass-offerings more restrained and particular, for such sins as were more scandalous and injurious, either to God by blasphemy, as Leviticus 4:1, or to his sanctuary, by approaching to it in one’s uncleanness, Leviticus 4:2,3, as hath been now said; or to one’s neighbour, by swearing to do to them either the good which we afterwards cannot or do not, or the evil which we should not; or to the priests and holy things of God, Leviticus 4:15.

A female; because those sins were less than others, as being committed ignorantly or unwittingly, and therefore God would accept a meaner sacrifice for them. And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the Lord, for the sin which he hath sinned,.... To make atonement for it; this was typical of the sacrifice of Christ, whose soul was made an offering for sin, "Asham" a trespass offering, Isaiah 53:10 where the same word is used as here:

a female from the flock, a lamb, or kid of the goats, for a sin offering; it is generally thought there was a difference between a trespass offering and a sin offering; but it is not easy to say wherein the difference lies; and what has been observed by learned men is not very satisfactory: and certain it is, that the same offering is here called both a trespass offering and a sin offering; and such as were men of substance, and capable of it, were to bring a female lamb or kid; it being for sins of ignorance, a sacrifice of a less value was admitted; yet it must be a lamb, typical of Christ the Lamb of God; and atonement cannot be made, even for sins of ignorance, but by the blood and sacrifice of Christ:

and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin; that is, by offering his sacrifice for him, which was a type of the atonement made by the precious blood of Christ, as of a lamb without spot and blemish.

And he shall bring his trespass offering unto the LORD for his sin which he hath sinned, a female from the flock, a lamb or a kid of the goats, for a sin offering; and the priest shall make an atonement for him concerning his sin.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
6. his guilt offering] The Heb. word ’âshâm, guilt, here and in Leviticus 5:7 is also translated guilt (trespass A.V.) offering in Leviticus 5:15-16; Leviticus 5:18, Leviticus 6:6 (for the attitude of the Heb. mind which led to this ambiguity in the sense of ’âshâm see Kennett, etc. Conceptions of Righteousness and Sin, p. 8). But the offering here brought is described as a Sin-Offering, and the two birds of Leviticus 5:7 are intended the one for a Sin-Offering, and the other for a Burnt-Offering. Moreover the substitute for the offering of Leviticus 5:7-10 (Leviticus 5:11-13) is twice called a Sin-Offering. In the regulations for the Sin-Offering (Leviticus 4:13; Leviticus 4:22; Leviticus 4:27, Leviticus 5:2-4) the bringer of a Sin-Offering is described as guilty (’âshçm), and from 2 Kings 12:16 (‘money for the guilt offerings,’ A.V. ‘trespass money,’ Heb. késeph’âshâm) it appears that Guilt-Offerings were sometimes brought in money. It seems that in these verses the Sin-Offering is regarded as a fine due from one who is guilty, and the clause might be translated ‘and he shall bring as his guilt-fine unto the Lord,’ and similarly in Leviticus 5:7. From the LXX. rendering in Leviticus 5:7 it is possible, but by no means certain, that they read ‘he shall bring his Sin-Offering for that wherein he hath sinned.’ If this reading be adopted, the unusual meaning of’ âshâm will be confined to Leviticus 5:6.

for his sin which he hath sinned] more literally, as his penalty which he has incurred by sin.In the case of the sin of a common Israelite ("of the people of the land," i.e., of the rural population, Genesis 23:7), that is to say, of an Israelite belonging to the people, as distinguished from the chiefs who ruled over the people (2 Kings 11:18-19; 2 Kings 16:15), the sin-offering was to consist of a shaggy she-goat without blemish, or a ewe-sheep (Leviticus 4:32). The ceremonial in both cases was the same as with the he-goat (Leviticus 4:23.). - "According to the offerings made by fire unto the Lord" (Leviticus 4:35): see at Leviticus 3:5.
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