Romans 5:18
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Consequently, just as one trespass resulted in condemnation for all people, so also one righteous act resulted in justification and life for all people.

King James Bible
Therefore as by the offence of one judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.

Darby Bible Translation
so then as [it was] by one offence towards all men to condemnation, so by one righteousness towards all men for justification of life.

World English Bible
So then as through one trespass, all men were condemned; even so through one act of righteousness, all men were justified to life.

Young's Literal Translation
So, then, as through one offence to all men it is to condemnation, so also through one declaration of 'Righteous' it is to all men to justification of life;

Romans 5:18 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Therefore, as by the offense of one, etc. - The Greek text of this verse is as follows: - Αρα ουν, ὡς δι' ἑνος παραπτωματος, εις παντας ανθρωπους εις κατακριμα· αυτω και ἑνος δικαιωματος, εις παντας ανθρωπους, εις δικαιωσιν ζωης; which literally rendered stands thus: - Therefore, as by one offense unto all men, unto condemnation; so likewise, by one righteousness unto all men, to justification of life. This is evidently an elliptical sentence, and its full meaning can be gathered only from the context. He who had no particular purpose to serve would, most probably, understand it, from the context, thus: - Therefore, as by one sin all men came into condemnation; so also by one righteous act all men came unto justification of life: which is more fully expressed in the following verse. Now, leaving all particular creeds out of the question, and taking in the scope of the apostle's reasoning in this and the preceding chapter, is not the sense evidently this? - Through the disobedience of Adam, a sentence of condemnation to death, without any promise or hope of a resurrection, passed upon all men; so, by the obedience of Christ unto death, this one grand righteous act, the sentence was so far reversed, that death shall not finally triumph, for all shall again be restored to life. Justice must have its due; and therefore all must die. The mercy of God, in Christ Jesus, shall have its due also; and therefore all shall be put into a salvable state here, and the whole human race shall be raised to life at the great day. Thus both justice and mercy are magnified; and neither is exalted at the expense of the other.

The apostle uses three remarkable words in these three verses: -

l. Δικαιωμα, justification, Romans 5:16.

2. Δικαιοσυνη, which we render righteousness, Romans 5:17; but is best rendered justification, as expressing that pardon and salvation offered to us in the Gospel: see the note on Romans 1:16.

3. Δικαιωσις, which is also rendered justification, Romans 5:18.

The first word, δικαιωμα, is found in the following places: Luke 1:6; Romans 1:32; Romans 2:26; Romans 5:16, Romans 5:18; Romans 8:4; Hebrews 9:1, Hebrews 9:10; Revelation 15:4; Revelation 19:8; to which the reader may refer. δικαιωμα signifies, among the Greek writers, the sentence of a judge, acquitting the innocent, condemning and punishing the guilty; but in the New Testament it signifies whatever God has appointed or sanctioned as a law; and appears to answer to the Hebrew משפט יהוה mishpat Yehovah, the statute or judgment, of the Lord; It has evidently this sense in Luke 1:6 : Walking in all the commandments and Ordinances, δικαιωμασι, of the Lord blameless; and it has the like meaning in the principal places referred to above; but in the verse in question it most evidently means absolution, or liberation, from punishment, as it is opposed to κατακριμα, condemnation, Romans 5:18. See the note on Romans 1:16; and see Schleusner in voce.

The second word, δικαιοσυνη, I have explained at large in Romans 1:16, already referred to.

The third word δικαιωσις, is used by the Greek writers, almost universally, to denote the punishment inflicted on a criminal, or the condemnatory sentence itself; but in the New Testament where it occurs only twice, (Romans 4:25, he was raised for our justification, δικαιωσιν; and Romans 5:18, unto justification of life, δικαιωσιν ζωης), it evidently signifies the pardon and remission of sins; and seems to be nearly synonymous with δικαιωμα. Dr. Taylor thinks that " δικαιοσυνη is Gospel pardon and salvation, and has reference to God's mercy. δικαιωμα is our being set quite clear and right; or our being restored to sanctity, delivered from eternal death, and being brought to eternal life; and has reference to the power and guilt of sin. And δικαιωσις he thinks may mean no more than our being restored to life at the resurrection." Taking these in their order, there is:

First, pardon of sin.

Secondly, purification of heart, and preparation for glory.

Thirdly, the resurrection of the body, and its being made like to his glorious body, so as to become a fit tabernacle for the soul in a glorified state for ever and ever.

The same writer observes that, when the apostle speaks of forgiveness of sins simply, he insists on faith as the condition; but here, where he speaks of justification of life, he mentions no condition; and therefore he supposes justification of life, the phrase being understood in a forensic sense, to mean no more than the decree or judgment that determines the resurrection from the dead. This is a favourite point with the doctor, and he argues largely for it: see his notes.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the offence. or, one offence. upon.

Romans 5:12,15,19 Why, as by one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed on all men, for that all have sinned...

Romans 3:19,20 Now we know that what things soever the law said, it said to them who are under the law: that every mouth may be stopped...

the righteousness. or, one righteousness.

Romans 3:21,22 But now the righteousness of God without the law is manifested, being witnessed by the law and the prophets...

2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ...

all men.

John 1:7 The same came for a witness, to bear witness of the Light, that all men through him might believe.

John 3:26 And they came to John, and said to him, Rabbi, he that was with you beyond Jordan, to whom you bore witness, behold, the same baptizes...

John 12:32 And I, if I be lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to me.

Acts 13:39 And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which you could not be justified by the law of Moses.

1 Corinthians 15:22 For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.

1 Timothy 2:4-6 Who will have all men to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth...

Hebrews 2:9 But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels for the suffering of death, crowned with glory and honor...

1 John 2:20 But you have an unction from the Holy One, and you know all things.

Library
March 20. "They which Receive Abundance of Grace and the Gift of Righteousness Shall Reign in Life" (Rom. v. 17).
"They which receive abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness shall reign in life" (Rom. v. 17). Precious souls sometimes fight tremendous battles in order to attain to righteousness in trying places. Perhaps the heart has become wrong in some matter where temptation has been allowed to overcome, or at least to turn it aside from its singleness unto God; and the conflict is a terrible one as it seeks to adjust itself and be right with God, and finds itself baffled by its own spiritual foes,
Rev. A. B. Simpson—Days of Heaven Upon Earth

Access into Grace
By whom also we have access by faith into this grace wherein we stand.'--ROMANS v. 2. I may be allowed to begin with a word or two of explanation of the terms of this passage. Note then, especially, that also which sends us back to the previous clause, and tells us that our text adds something to what was spoken of there. What was spoken of there? 'The peace of God' which comes to a man by Jesus Christ through faith, the removal of enmity, and the declaration of righteousness. But that peace
Alexander Maclaren—Romans, Corinthians (To II Corinthians, Chap. V)

For whom did Christ Die?
While man is in this condition Jesus interposes for his salvation. "When we were yet without strength, in due time Christ died for the ungodly"; "while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us," according to "his great love wherewith he loved us, even when we were dead in trespasses and sins." The pith of my sermon will be an endeavour to declare that the reason of Christ's dying for us did not lie in our excellence; but where sin abounded grace did much more abound, for the persons for whom Jesus
Charles Haddon Spurgeon—Spurgeon's Sermons Volume 20: 1874

Sin and Grace
"Where sin abounded, grace did much more abound."--Romans 5:20. THERE are two very powerful forces in the world, which have been here ever since the time when Eve partook of the forbidden fruit in the garden of Eden. Those two forces are sin and grace. A very great power is sin, a power dark, mysterious, baleful, but full of force. The sorrows of mankind, whence came they but from sin? We should have known no war, nor pestilence, nor famine, nor would aught of sickness or sorrow ever have smitten
Charles Haddon Spurgeon—Spurgeon's Sermons Volume 54: 1908

Cross References
Isaiah 53:11
After he has suffered, he will see the light of life and be satisfied; by his knowledge my righteous servant will justify many, and he will bear their iniquities.

Romans 3:25
God presented Christ as a sacrifice of atonement, through the shedding of his blood--to be received by faith. He did this to demonstrate his righteousness, because in his forbearance he had left the sins committed beforehand unpunished--

Romans 4:25
He was delivered over to death for our sins and was raised to life for our justification.

Romans 5:12
Therefore, just as sin entered the world through one man, and death through sin, and in this way death came to all people, because all sinned--

Romans 5:15
But the gift is not like the trespass. For if the many died by the trespass of the one man, how much more did God's grace and the gift that came by the grace of the one man, Jesus Christ, overflow to the many!

Romans 5:19
For just as through the disobedience of the one man the many were made sinners, so also through the obedience of the one man the many will be made righteous.

Romans 6:14
For sin shall no longer be your master, because you are not under the law, but under grace.

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