Exodus 28:30
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Also put the Urim and the Thummim in the breastpiece, so they may be over Aaron's heart whenever he enters the presence of the LORD. Thus Aaron will always bear the means of making decisions for the Israelites over his heart before the LORD.

King James Bible
And thou shalt put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be upon Aaron's heart, when he goeth in before the LORD: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before the LORD continually.

Darby Bible Translation
And thou shalt put into the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim, that they may be upon Aaron's heart when he goeth in before Jehovah; and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah continually.

World English Bible
You shall put in the breastplate of judgment the Urim and the Thummim; and they shall be on Aaron's heart, when he goes in before Yahweh: and Aaron shall bear the judgment of the children of Israel on his heart before Yahweh continually.

Young's Literal Translation
'And thou hast put unto the breastplate of judgment the Lights and the Perfections, and they have been on the heart of Aaron, in his going in before Jehovah, and Aaron hath borne the judgment of the sons of Israel on his heart before Jehovah continually.

Exodus 28:30 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Thou shalt put in the breastplate - the Urim and the Thummim - What these were has, I believe, never yet been discovered.

1. They are nowhere described.

2. There is no direction given to Moses or any other how to make them.

3. Whatever they were, they do not appear to have been made on this occasion.

4. If they were the work of man at all, they must have been the articles in the ancient tabernacle, matters used by the patriarchs, and not here particularly described, because well known.

5. It is probable that nothing material is designed. This is the opinion of some of the Jewish doctors. Rabbi Menachem on this chapter says, "The Urim and Thummim were not the work of the artificer; neither had the artificers or the congregation of Israel in them any work or any voluntary offering; but they were a mystery delivered to Moses from the mouth of God, or they were the work of God himself, or a measure of the Holy Spirit."

6. That God was often consulted by Urim and Thummim, is sufficiently evident from several scriptures; but how or in what manner he was thus consulted appears in none.

7. This mode of consultation, whatever it was, does not appear to have been in use from the consecration of Solomon's temple to the time of its destruction; and after its destruction it is never once mentioned. Hence the Jews say that the five following things, which were in the first temple, were wanting in the second:

"1. The ark with the mercy-seat and cherubim;

2. The fire which came down from heaven;

3. The shechinah or Divine presence;

4. The Holy Spirit, i.e., the gift of prophecy; and

5. The Urim and Thummim."

8. As the word אורים urim signifies Lights, and the word תמים tummim, Perfections, they were probably designed to point out the light - the abundant information, in spiritual things, afforded by the wonderful revelation which God made of himself by and under the Law; and the perfection - entire holiness and strict conformity to himself, which this dispensation required, and which are introduced and accomplished by that dispensation of light and truth, the Gospel, which was prefigured and pointed out by the law and its sacrifices, etc.; and in this light the subject has been viewed by the Vulgate, where the words are translated doctrina et veritas, doctrine and truth - a system of teaching proceeding from truth itself. The Septuagint translate the original by δηλωσις και αληθεια, the manifestation and the truth; meaning probably the manifestation which God made of himself to Moses and the Israelites, and the truth which he had revealed to them, of which this breastplate should be a continual memorial.


Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the Urim and Thummim. lights and perfections; manifestation and truth; and doctrine and truth. Among the various and contradictory opinions respecting the form and substance of these mysterious appendages, the most probable seems to be that of Josephus, Philo, Bp. Patrick, Parkhurst, and the Jewish writers generally; who state, that they were no other than the twelve precious stones of the high priest's breastplate. In support of this statement, it is observed, that in the description of the high priest's breastplate, Ex.

Exodus 39:8 And he made the breastplate of cunning work, like the work of the ephod; of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

the Urim and Thummim are not mentioned, but only the rows of stones; and on the contrary, in Lev.

Exodus 8:8 Then Pharaoh called for Moses and Aaron, and said, Entreat the LORD, that he may take away the frogs from me, and from my people...

the Urim and Thummim are expressly mentioned, but not a word is said of the four rows of stones. As Moses has given such a particular description of everything relative to the high priest's dress, these would certainly have been described had they been different from what was previously mentioned.

Leviticus 8:8 And he put the breastplate on him: also he put in the breastplate the Urim and the Thummim.

Numbers 27:21 And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall ask counsel for him after the judgment of Urim before the LORD...

Deuteronomy 33:8 And of Levi he said, Let your Thummim and your Urim be with your holy one, whom you did prove at Massah...

Judges 1:1 Now after the death of Joshua it came to pass, that the children of Israel asked the LORD, saying...

Judges 20:18,23,27,28 And the children of Israel arose, and went up to the house of God, and asked counsel of God, and said...

1 Samuel 23:9-12 And David knew that Saul secretly practiced mischief against him; and he said to Abiathar the priest, Bring here the ephod...

1 Samuel 28:6 And when Saul inquired of the LORD, the LORD answered him not, neither by dreams, nor by Urim, nor by prophets.

1 Samuel 30:7,8 And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray you, bring me here the ephod...

Ezra 2:63 And the Tirshatha said to them, that they should not eat of the most holy things...

Nehemiah 7:65 And the Tirshatha said to them, that they should not eat of the most holy things, till there stood up a priest with Urim and Thummim.

bear the judgment

Zechariah 6:13 Even he shall build the temple of the LORD; and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule on his throne...

upon his heart

2 Corinthians 6:11,12 O you Corinthians, our mouth is open to you, our heart is enlarged...

2 Corinthians 7:3 I speak not this to condemn you: for I have said before, that you are in our hearts to die and live with you.

2 Corinthians 12:15 And I will very gladly spend and be spent for you; though the more abundantly I love you, the less I be loved.

Philippians 1:7,8 Even as it is meet for me to think this of you all, because I have you in my heart; inasmuch as both in my bonds...

Hebrews 2:17 Why in all things it behooved him to be made like to his brothers...

Hebrews 4:15 For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are...

Hebrews 9:12,24 Neither by the blood of goats and calves, but by his own blood he entered in once into the holy place...

Three Inscriptions with one Meaning
'Thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it ... HOLINESS TO THE LORD.'--EXODUS xxviii. 36. 'In that day there shall be upon the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD.'--ZECH. xiv. 20. 'His name shall be in their foreheads.'--REV. xxii. 4. You will have perceived my purpose in putting these three widely separated texts together. They all speak of inscriptions, and they are all obviously connected with each other. The first of them comes from the ancient times of the institution
Alexander Maclaren—Expositions of Holy Scripture

Edwards -- Spiritual Light
Jonathan Edwards, the New England divine and metaphysician, was born at East Windsor, Connecticut, in 1703. He was graduated early from Yale College, where he had given much attention to philosophy, became tutor of his college, and at nineteen began to preach. His voice and manner did not lend themselves readily to pulpit oratory, but his clear, logical, and intense presentation of the truth produced a profound and permanent effect upon his hearers. He wrote what were considered the most important
Grenville Kleiser—The world's great sermons, Volume 3

The Covenant of Grace
Q-20: DID GOD LEAVE ALL MANKIND TO PERISH 1N THE ESTATE OF SIN AND MISERY? A: No! He entered into a covenant of grace to deliver the elect out of that state, and to bring them into a state of grace by a Redeemer. 'I will make an everlasting covenant with you.' Isa 55:5. Man being by his fall plunged into a labyrinth of misery, and having no way left to recover himself, God was pleased to enter into a new covenant with him, and to restore him to life by a Redeemer. The great proposition I shall go
Thomas Watson—A Body of Divinity

The Earliest Christian Preaching
1. THUS far we have confined ourselves to the words of Jesus. The divine necessity of His death, indicated in the Old Testament and forming the basis of all His teaching regarding it, is the primary truth; the nature of that necessity begins to be revealed as the death is set in relation to the ransoming of many, and to the institution of a new covenant -- that is, a new religion, having as its fundamental blessing the forgiveness of sins. I do not think this view of our Lord's mind as to His own
James Denney—The Death of Christ

Cross References
Exodus 28:29
"Whenever Aaron enters the Holy Place, he will bear the names of the sons of Israel over his heart on the breastpiece of decision as a continuing memorial before the LORD.

Leviticus 8:8
He placed the breastpiece on him and put the Urim and Thummim in the breastpiece.

Numbers 27:21
He is to stand before Eleazar the priest, who will obtain decisions for him by inquiring of the Urim before the LORD. At his command he and the entire community of the Israelites will go out, and at his command they will come in."

Deuteronomy 33:8
About Levi he said: "Your Thummim and Urim belong to your faithful servant. You tested him at Massah; you contended with him at the waters of Meribah.

1 Samuel 28:6
He inquired of the LORD, but the LORD did not answer him by dreams or Urim or prophets.

Ezra 2:63
The governor ordered them not to eat any of the most sacred food until there was a priest ministering with the Urim and Thummim.

Nehemiah 7:65
The governor, therefore, ordered them not to eat any of the most sacred food until there should be a priest ministering with the Urim and Thummim.

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