Exodus 11:5
Parallel Verses
New American Standard Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of the Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the slave girl who is behind the millstones; all the firstborn of the cattle as well.

King James Bible
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh that sitteth upon his throne, even unto the firstborn of the maidservant that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of beasts.

Darby Bible Translation
And all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sitteth on his throne, even unto the firstborn of the bondwoman that is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of cattle.

World English Bible
and all the firstborn in the land of Egypt shall die, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sits on his throne, even to the firstborn of the female servant who is behind the mill; and all the firstborn of livestock.

Young's Literal Translation
and every first-born in the land of Egypt hath died, from the first-born of Pharaoh who is sitting on his throne, unto the first-born of the maid-servant who is behind the millstones, and all the first-born of beasts;

Exodus 11:5 Parallel
Commentary
Barnes' Notes on the Bible

Two points are to be noticed:

1. The extent of the visitation: the whole land suffers in the persons of its firstborn, not merely for the guilt of the sovereign, but for the actual participation of the people in the crime of infanticide Exodus 1:22.

2. The limitation: Pharaoh's command had been to slay ALL the male children of the Israelites, but only one child in each Egyptian family was to die. If Tothmosis II was the Pharaoh, the visitation fell with special severity on his family. He left no son, but was succeeded by his widow.

The mill - This consisted of two circular stones, one fixed in the ground, the other turned by a handle. The work of grinding was extremely laborious, and performed by women of the lowest rank.

Firstborn of beasts - This visitation has a special force in reference to the worship of beasts, which was universal in Egypt; each district having its own sacred animal, adored as a manifestation or representative of the local tutelary deity.

Exodus 11:5 Parallel Commentaries

Library
Appendix 2 Extracts from the Babylon Talmud
Massecheth Berachoth, or Tractate on Benedictions [76] Mishnah--From what time is the "Shema" said in the evening? From the hour that the priests entered to eat of their therumah [77] until the end of the first night watch. [78] These are the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: Till midnight. Rabban Gamaliel says: Until the column of the morning (the dawn) rises. It happened, that his sons came back from a banquet. They said to him: "We have not said the Shema.'" He said to them, "If the column
Alfred Edersheim—Sketches of Jewish Social Life

Cross References
Matthew 24:41
"Two women will be grinding at the mill; one will be taken and one will be left.

Exodus 4:23
"So I said to you, 'Let My son go that he may serve Me'; but you have refused to let him go. Behold, I will kill your son, your firstborn."'"

Exodus 12:12
'For I will go through the land of Egypt on that night, and will strike down all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both man and beast; and against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgments-- I am the LORD.

Exodus 12:29
Now it came about at midnight that the LORD struck all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, from the firstborn of Pharaoh who sat on his throne to the firstborn of the captive who was in the dungeon, and all the firstborn of cattle.

Psalm 78:51
And smote all the firstborn in Egypt, The first issue of their virility in the tents of Ham.

Psalm 105:36
He also struck down all the firstborn in their land, The first fruits of all their vigor.

Psalm 135:8
He smote the firstborn of Egypt, Both of man and beast.

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Beasts Births Born Cattle Crushing Death Die Egypt Female First Firstborn First-Born Girl Grain Livestock Maidservant Maid-Servant Mill Millstones Pharaoh Power Seat Servant Servant-Girl Sits Sitteth Slave Throne
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Beasts Births Born Cattle Crushing Death Die Egypt Female First Firstborn First-Born Girl Grain Livestock Maidservant Maid-Servant Mill Millstones Pharaoh Power Seat Servant Servant-Girl Sits Sitteth Slave Throne
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