Psalm 79:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
O God, the nations have come into your inheritance; they have defiled your holy temple; they have laid Jerusalem in ruins.

King James Bible
A Psalm of Asaph. O God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance; thy holy temple have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps.

American Standard Version
O God, the nations are come into thine inheritance; Thy holy temple have they defiled; They have laid Jerusalem in heaps.

Douay-Rheims Bible
A psalm for Asaph. O God, the heathens are come into thy inheritance, they have defiled thy holy temple: they have made Jerusalem as a place to keep fruit.

English Revised Version
A Psalm of Asaph. O God, the heathen are come into thine inheritance; thy holy temple have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps.

Webster's Bible Translation
A Psalm of Asaph. O God, the heathen have come into thy inheritance; thy holy temple have they defiled; they have laid Jerusalem on heaps.

Psalm 79:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The rejection of Shiloh and of the people worshipping there, but later on, when the God of Israel is again overwhelmed by compassion, the election of Judah, and of Mount Zion, and of David, the king after His own heart. In the time of the Judges the Tabernacle was set up in Shiloh (Joshua 18:1); there, consequently, was the central sanctuary of the whole people, - in the time of Eli and Samuel, as follows from 1 Samuel 1:1, it had become a fixed temple building. When this building was destroyed is not known; according to Judges 18:30., cf. Jeremiah 7:12-15, it was probably not until the Assyrian period. The rejection of Shiloh, however, preceded the destruction, and practically took place simultaneously with the removal of the central sanctuary to Zion; and was, moreover, even previously decided by the fact that the Ark of the covenant, when given up again by the Philistines, was not brought back to Shiloh, but set down in Kirjath Jearm (1 Samuel 7:2). The attributive clause שׁכּן בּאדם uses שׁכּן as השׁכּין is used in Joshua 18:1. The pointing is correct, for the words to not suffice to signify "where He dwelleth among men" (Hitzig); consequently שׁכּן is the causative of the Kal, Leviticus 16:16; Joshua 22:19. In Psalm 78:61 the Ark of the covenant is called the might and glory of God (ארון עזּו, Psalm 132:8, cf. כבוד, 1 Samuel 4:21.), as being the place of their presence in Israel and the medium of their revelation. Nevertheless, in the battle with the Philistines between Eben-ezer and Aphek, Jahve gave the Ark, which they had fetched out of Shiloh, into the hands of the foe in order to visit on the high-priesthood of the sons of Ithamar the desecration of His ordinances, and there fell in that battle 30,000 footmen, and among them the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests (1 Samuel 4). The fire in Psalm 78:63 is the fire of war, as in Numbers 21:28, and frequently. The incident mentioned in 1 Samuel 6:19 is reasonably (vid., Keil) left out of consideration. By לא הוּלּלוּ (lxx erroneously, οὐκ ἐπένθησαν equals הוללוּ equals הילילוּ) are meant the marriage-songs (cf. Talmudic הלּוּלא, the nuptial tent, and בּית הלוּלים the marriage-house). "Its widows (of the people, in fact, of the slain) weep not" (word for word as in Job 27:15) is meant of the celebration of the customary ceremony of mourning (Genesis 23:2): they survive their husbands (which, with the exception of such a case as that recorded in 1 Samuel 14:19-22, is presupposed), but without being able to show them the last signs of honour, because the terrors of the war (Jeremiah 15:8) prevent them.

With Psalm 78:65 the song takes a new turn. After the punitive judgment has sifted and purified Israel, God receives His people to Himself afresh, but in such a manner that He transfers the precedence of Ephraim to the tribe of Judah. He awakes as it were from a long sleep (Psalm 44:24, cf. Psalm 73:20); for He seemed to sleep whilst Israel had become a servant to the heathen; He aroused Himself, like a hero exulting by reason of wine, i.e., like a hero whose courage is heightened by the strengthening and exhilarating influence of wine (Hengstenberg). התרונן is not the Hithpal. of רוּן in the Arabic signification, which is alien to the Hebrew, to conquer, a meaning which we do not need here, and which is also not adapted to the reflexive form (Hitzig, without any precedent, renders thus: who allows himself to be conquered by wine), but Hithpo. of רנן: to shout most heartily, after the analogy of the reflexives התאונן, התנודד, התרועע. The most recent defeat of the enemy which the poet has before his mind is that of the Philistines. The form of expression in Psalm 78:66 is moulded after 1 Samuel 5:6. God smote the Philistines most literally in posteriora (lxx, Vulgate, and Luther). Nevertheless Psalm 78:66 embraces all the victories under Samuel, Saul, and David, from 1 Samuel 5:1-12 and onwards. Now, when they were able to bring the Ark, which had been brought down to the battle against the Philistines, to a settled resting-place again, God no longer chose Shiloh of Ephraim, but Judah and the mountain of Zion, which He had loved (Psalm 47:5), of Benjamitish-Judaean (Joshua 15:63; Judges 1:8, Judges 1:21) - but according to the promise (Deuteronomy 33:12) and according to the distribution of the country (vid., on Psalm 68:28) Benjamitish - Jerusalem.

(Note: According to B. Menachoth 53b, Jedidiah (Solomon, 2 Samuel 12:25) built the Temple in the province of Jedidiah (of Benjamin, Deuteronomy 33:12).)

There God built His Temple כּמו־רמים. Hitzig proposes instead of this to read כּמרומים; but if נעימים, Psalm 16:6, signifies amaena, then רמים may signify excelsa (cf. Isaiah 45:2 הדוּרים, Jeremiah 17:6 חררים) and be poetically equivalent to מרומים: lasting as the heights of heaven, firm as the earth, which He hath founded for ever. Since the eternal duration of heaven and of the earth is quite consistent with a radical change in the manner of its duration, and that not less in the sense of the Old Testament than of the New (vid., e.g., Isaiah 65:17), so the לעולם applies not to the stone building, but rather to the place where Jahve reveals Himself, and to the promise that He will have such a dwelling-place in Israel, and in fact in Judah. Regarded spiritually, i.e., essentially, apart from the accidental mode of appearing, the Temple upon Zion is as eternal as the kingship upon Zion with which the Psalm closes. The election of David gives its impress to the history of salvation even on into eternity. It is genuinely Asaphic that it is so designedly portrayed how the shepherd of the flock of Jesse (Isai) became the shepherd of the flock of Jahve, who was not to pasture old and young in Israel with the same care and tenderness as the ewe-lambs after which he went (עלות as in Genesis 33:13, and רעה ב, cf. 1 Samuel 16:11; 1 Samuel 17:34, like משׁל בּ and the like). The poet is also able already to glory that he has fulfilled this vocation with a pure heart and with an intelligent mastery. And with this he closes.

From the decease of David lyric and prophecy are retrospectively and prospectively turned towards David.

Psalm 79:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

A.M.

3416. B.C.

588. A Psalm. This Psalm is supposed, with much probability, to have been written on the destruction of the city and temple of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar.

Psalm 74:1 O God, why have you cast us off for ever? why does your anger smoke against the sheep of your pasture?

the heathen

Psalm 74:3,4 Lift up your feet to the perpetual desolations; even all that the enemy has done wickedly in the sanctuary...

Psalm 80:12,13 Why have you then broken down her hedges, so that all they which pass by the way do pluck her...

2 Kings 21:12-16 Therefore thus said the LORD God of Israel, Behold, I am bringing such evil on Jerusalem and Judah, that whoever hears of it...

2 Kings 25:4-10 And the city was broken up, and all the men of war fled by night by the way of the gate between two walls...

2 Chronicles 36:3,4,6,7,17 And the king of Egypt put him down at Jerusalem, and condemned the land in an hundred talents of silver and a talent of gold...

Luke 21:24 And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations...

Revelation 11:2 But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given to the Gentiles...

into

Psalm 74:2 Remember your congregation, which you have purchased of old; the rod of your inheritance, which you have redeemed; this mount Zion...

Psalm 78:71 From following the ewes great with young he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance.

Exodus 15:17 You shall bring them in, and plant them in the mountain of your inheritance, in the place, O LORD...

Isaiah 47:6 I was wroth with my people, I have polluted my inheritance, and given them into your hand: you did show them no mercy...

holy

Psalm 74:7,8 They have cast fire into your sanctuary, they have defiled by casting down the dwelling place of your name to the ground...

2 Kings 24:13 And he carried out there all the treasures of the house of the LORD, and the treasures of the king's house...

Lamentations 1:10 The adversary has spread out his hand on all her pleasant things: for she has seen that the heathen entered into her sanctuary...

Ezekiel 7:20,21 As for the beauty of his ornament, he set it in majesty...

Ezekiel 9:7 And he said to them, Defile the house, and fill the courts with the slain: go you forth. And they went forth, and slew in the city.

have laid

2 Kings 25:9,10 And he burnt the house of the LORD, and the king's house, and all the houses of Jerusalem...

2 Chronicles 36:19 And they burnt the house of God, and broke down the wall of Jerusalem, and burnt all the palaces thereof with fire...

Jeremiah 26:18 Micah the Morasthite prophesied in the days of Hezekiah king of Judah, and spoke to all the people of Judah, saying...

Jeremiah 29:8 For thus said the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel; Let not your prophets and your diviners, that be in the middle of you, deceive you...

Jeremiah 52:13 And burned the house of the LORD, and the king's house; and all the houses of Jerusalem, and all the houses of the great men...

Micah 3:12 Therefore shall Zion for your sake be plowed as a field, and Jerusalem shall become heaps...

Cross References
2 Kings 25:9
And he burned the house of the LORD and the king's house and all the houses of Jerusalem; every great house he burned down.

2 Kings 25:10
And all the army of the Chaldeans, who were with the captain of the guard, broke down the walls around Jerusalem.

2 Chronicles 36:17
Therefore he brought up against them the king of the Chaldeans, who killed their young men with the sword in the house of their sanctuary and had no compassion on young man or virgin, old man or aged. He gave them all into his hand.

Psalm 74:2
Remember your congregation, which you have purchased of old, which you have redeemed to be the tribe of your heritage! Remember Mount Zion, where you have dwelt.

Psalm 74:3
Direct your steps to the perpetual ruins; the enemy has destroyed everything in the sanctuary!

Psalm 74:7
They set your sanctuary on fire; they profaned the dwelling place of your name, bringing it down to the ground.

Psalm 94:5
They crush your people, O LORD, and afflict your heritage.

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