Psalm 68:21
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
But God will strike the heads of his enemies, the hairy crown of him who walks in his guilty ways.

King James Bible
But God shall wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such an one as goeth on still in his trespasses.

American Standard Version
But God will smite through the head of his enemies, The hairy scalp of such a one as goeth on still in his guiltiness.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But God shall break the heads of his enemies: the hairy crown of them that walk on in their sins.

English Revised Version
But God shall smite through the head of his enemies, the hairy scalp of such an one as goeth on still in his guiltiness.

Webster's Bible Translation
But God will wound the head of his enemies, and the hairy scalp of such one as goeth on still in his trespasses.

Psalm 68:21 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

This victory of Israel over the kings of the Gentiles gives the poet the joyful assurance that Zion is the inaccessible dwelling-place of Elohim, the God of the heavenly hosts. The mention of Zalmon leads him to mention other mountains. He uses the mountains of Bashan as an emblem of the hostile powers east of Jordan. These stand over against the people of God, as the mighty mountains of Bashan rising in steep, only slightly flattened peaks, to little hill-like Zion. In the land on this side Jordan the limestone and chalk formation with intermingled strata of sandstone predominates; the mountains of Bashan, however, are throughout volcanic, consisting of slag, lava, and more particularly basalt (basanites), which has apparently taken its name from Bashan (Basan).

(Note: This is all the more probable as Semitism has no proper word for basalt; in Syria it is called hag'ar aswad, "black stone.")

As a basalt range the mountains of Bashan are conspicuous among other creations of God, and are therefore called "the mountain of Elohim:" the basalt rises in the form of a cone with the top lopped off, or even towers aloft like so many columns precipitous and rugged to sharp points; hence the mountains of Bashan are called הר גּבננּים, i.e., a mountain range (for הר, as is well known, signifies both the single eminence and the range of summits) of many peaks equals a many-peaked mountain; גּבנן is an adjective like רענן, אמלל. With this boldly formed mass of rock so gloomily majestic, giving the impression of antiquity and of invincibleness, when compared with the ranges on the other side of unstable porous limestone and softer formations, more particularly with Zion, it is an emblem of the world and its powers standing over against the people of God as a threatening and seemingly invincible colossus. The poet asks these mountains of Bashan "why," etc.? רצד is explained from the Arabic rṣd, which, in accordance with its root Arab. rṣ, signifies to cleave firmly to a place (firmiter inhaesit loco), properly used of a beast of prey couching down and lying in wait for prey, of a hunter on the catch, and of an enemy in ambush; hence then: to lie in wait for, lurk, ἐνεδρεύειν, craftily, insidiose (whence râṣid, a lier-in-wait, tarraṣṣud, an ambush), here: to regard enviously, invidiose. In Arabic, just as in this instance, it is construed as a direct transitive with an accusative of the object, whereas the original signification would lead one to look for a dative of the object (רצד ל), which does also really occur in the common Arabic. Olewejored is placed by גבננים, but what follows is not, after all, the answer: "the mountain - Elohim has chosen it as the seat of His throne," but ההר is the object of the interrogative clause: Quare indiviose observatis, montes cacuminosi, hunc montem (δεικτικῶς: that Zion yonder), quem, etc. (an attributive clause after the determinate substantive, as in Psalm 52:9; Psalm 89:50, and many other instances, contrary to the Arabic rule of style). Now for the first time, in Psalm 68:17, follows that which is boastfully and defiantly contrasted with the proud mountains: "Jahve will also dwell for ever;" not only that Elohim has chosen Zion as the seat of His throne, it will also continue to be the seat of His throne, Jahve will continue to dwell [there] for ever. Grace is superior to nature, and the church superior to the world, powerful and majestic as this may seem to be. Zion maintains its honour over against the mountains of Bashan.

Psalm 68:21 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

God

Psalm 110:6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries.

Habakkuk 3:13 You went forth for the salvation of your people, even for salvation with your anointed...

Mark 12:4 And again he sent to them another servant; and at him they cast stones, and wounded him in the head...

the hairy

Psalm 55:23 But you, O God, shall bring them down into the pit of destruction: bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days...

of such

Psalm 68:18 You have ascended on high, you have led captivity captive: you have received gifts for men; yes, for the rebellious also...

Psalm 7:12 If he turn not, he will whet his sword; he has bent his bow, and made it ready.

Proverbs 1:24 Because I have called, and you refused; I have stretched out my hand, and no man regarded;

Ezekiel 18:27-30 Again, when the wicked man turns away from his wickedness that he has committed, and does that which is lawful and right...

Luke 13:5 I tell you, No: but, except you repent, you shall all likewise perish.

Hebrews 2:1-3 Therefore we ought to give the more earnest heed to the things which we have heard, lest at any time we should let them slip...

Hebrews 12:25 See that you refuse not him that speaks. For if they escaped not who refused him that spoke on earth, much more shall not we escape...

Revelation 2:14-16 But I have a few things against you, because you have there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam...

Cross References
Psalm 110:6
He will execute judgment among the nations, filling them with corpses; he will shatter chiefs over the wide earth.

Amos 9:1
I saw the Lord standing beside the altar, and he said: "Strike the capitals until the thresholds shake, and shatter them on the heads of all the people; and those who are left of them I will kill with the sword; not one of them shall flee away; not one of them shall escape.

Habakkuk 3:13
You went out for the salvation of your people, for the salvation of your anointed. You crushed the head of the house of the wicked, laying him bare from thigh to neck. Selah

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