Psalm 43:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Vindicate me, O God, and defend my cause against an ungodly people, from the deceitful and unjust man deliver me!

King James Bible
Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man.

American Standard Version
Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: Oh deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man.

Douay-Rheims Bible
A psalm for David. Judge me, O God, and distinguish my cause from the nation that is not holy : deliver me from the unjust and deceitful man.

English Revised Version
Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man.

Webster's Bible Translation
Judge me, O God, and plead my cause against an ungodly nation: O deliver me from the deceitful and unjust man.

Psalm 43:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

(Heb.: 42:7-12) The poet here continues to console himself with God's help. God Himself is indeed dishonoured in him; He will not suffer the trust he has reposed in Him to go unjustified. True, עלי seems at the beginning of the line to be tame, but from עלי and אזכּרך, the beginning and end of the line, standing in contrast, עלי is made emphatic, and it is at the same time clear that על־כּן is not equivalent to אשׁר על־כּן - which Gesenius asserts in his Lexicon, erroneously referring to Psalm 1:5; Psalm 45:3, is a poetical usage of the language; an assertion for which, however, there is as little support as that כּי על־כּן in Numbers 14:43 and other passages is equivalent to על־כּן כּי. In all such passages, e.g., Jeremiah 48:36, על־כּן means "therefore," and the relationship of reason and consequence is reversed. So even here: within him his soul is bowed very low, and on account of this downcast condition he thinks continually of God, from whom he is separated. Even in Jonah 2:8 this thinking upon God does not appear as the cause but as the consequence of pain. The "land of Jordan and of Hermonim" is not necessarily the northern mountain range together with the sources of the Jordan. The land beyond the Jordan is so called in opposition to ארץ לבנון, the land on this side. According to Dietrich (Abhandlungen, S. 18), חרמונים is an amplificative plural: the Hermon, as a peak soaring far above all lower summits. John Wilson (Lands of the Bible, ii. 161) refers the plural to its two summits. But the plural serves to denote the whole range of the Antilebanon extending to the south-east, and accordingly to designate the east Jordanic country. It is not for one moment to be supposed that the psalmist calls Hermon even, in comparison with his native Zion, the chosen of God. הר מצער, i.e., the mountain of littleness: the other member of the antithesis, the majesty of Zion, is wanting, and the מן which is repeated before הר is also opposed to this. Hitzig, striking out the מ of מהר, makes it an address to Zion: "because I remember thee out of the land of Jordan and of summits of Hermon, thou little mountain;" but, according to Psalm 42:8, these words are addressed to Elohim. In the vicinity of Mitz‛are, a mountain unknown to us, in the country beyond Jordan, the poet is sojourning; from thence he looks longingly towards the district round about his home, and just as there, in a strange land, the wild waters of the awe-inspiring mountains roar around him, there seems to be a corresponding tumult in his soul. In Psalm 42:8 he depicts the natural features of the country round about him - and it may remind one quite as much of the high and magnificent waterfalls of the lake of Muzêrı̂b as of the waterfall at the course of the Jordan near Paneas and the waters that dash headlong down the mountains round about - and in Psalm 42:8 he says that he feels just as though all these threatening masses of water were following like so many waves of misfortune over his head (Tholuck, Hitzig, and Riehm). Billow follows billow as if called by one another (cf. Isaiah 6:3 concerning the continuous antiphon of the seraphim) at the roar (לקול as in Habakkuk 3:16) of the cataracts, which in their terrible grandeur proclaim the Creator, God (lxx τῶν καταῤῥακτῶν σου) - all these breaking, sporting waves of God pass over him, who finds himself thus surrounded by the mighty works of nature, but taking no delight in them; and in them all he sees nothing but the mirrored image of the many afflictions which threaten to involve him in utter destruction (cf. the borrowed passage in that mosaic work taken from the Psalms, Jonah 2:4).

He, however, calls upon himself in Psalm 42:9 to take courage in the hope that a morning will dawn after this night of affliction (Psalm 30:6), when Jahve, the God of redemption and of the people of redemption, will command His loving-kindness (cf. Psalm 44:5, Amos; 3f.); and when this by day has accomplished its work of deliverance, there follows upon the day of deliverance a night of thanksgiving (Job 35:10): the joyous excitement, the strong feeling of gratitude, will not suffer him to sleep. The suffix of שׁירה is the suffix of the object: a hymn in praise of Him, prayer (viz., praiseful prayer, Habakkuk 3:1) to the God of his life (cf. Sir. 23:4), i.e., who is his life, and will not suffer him to come under the dominion of death. Therefore will he say (אומרה), in order to bring about by prayer such a day of loving-kindness and such a night of thanksgiving songs, to the God of his rock, i.e., who is his rock (gen. apos.): Why, etc.? Concerning the different accentuation of למה here and in Psalm 43:2, vid., on Psalm 37:20 (cf. Psalm 10:1). In this instance, where it is not followed by a guttural, it serves as a "variation" Hitzig); but even the retreating of the tone when a guttural follows is not consistently carried out, vid., Psalm 49:6, cf. 1 Samuel 28:15 (Ew. 243, b). The view of Vaihinger and Hengstenberg is inadmissible, viz., that Psalm 42:10 to Psalm 42:11 are the "prayer," which the psalmist means in Psalm 42:9; it is the prayerful sigh of the yearning for deliverance, which is intended to form the burthen of that prayer. In some MSS we find the reading כּרצח instead of בּרצח; the בּ is here really synonymous with the כּ, it is the Beth essentiae (vid., Psalm 35:2): after the manner of a crushing (cf. Ezekiel 21:27, and the verb in Psalm 62:4 of overthrowing a wall) in my bones, i.e., causing me a crunching pain which seethes in my bones, mine oppressors reproach me (חרף with the transfer of the primary meaning carpere, as is also customary in the Latin, to a plucking and stripping one of his good name). The use of ב here differs from its use in Psalm 42:10; for the reproaching is not added to the crushing as a continuing state, but is itself thus crushing in its operation (vid., Psalm 42:4). Instead of בּאמר we have here the easier form of expression בּאמרם; and in the refrain פּני ואלהי, which is also to be restored in Psalm 42:6.

Psalm 43:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

A.M.

2983 B.C.

1021 (Title.) This Psalm is evidently a continuation of the preceding, and had the same author; and they are written as one in forty-six MSS. The sameness of subject, similarity of composition, and return of the same burden in both, are sufficient evidence of this opinion

Judge

Psalm 7:8 The LORD shall judge the people: judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness, and according to my integrity that is in me.

Psalm 26:1 Judge me, O LORD; for I have walked in my integrity: I have trusted also in the LORD; therefore I shall not slide.

Psalm 35:24 Judge me, O LORD my God, according to your righteousness; and let them not rejoice over me.

Psalm 75:7 But God is the judge: he puts down one, and sets up another.

1 Corinthians 4:4 For I know nothing by myself; yet am I not hereby justified: but he that judges me is the Lord.

1 Peter 2:23 Who, when he was reviled, reviled not again; when he suffered, he threatened not; but committed himself to him that judges righteously:

plead

Psalm 35:1 Plead my cause, O LORD, with them that strive with me: fight against them that fight against me.

1 Samuel 24:15 The LORD therefore be judge, and judge between me and you, and see, and plead my cause, and deliver me out of your hand.

Proverbs 22:23 For the LORD will plead their cause, and spoil the soul of those that spoiled them.

Proverbs 23:11 For their redeemer is mighty; he shall plead their cause with you.

Micah 7:9 I will bear the indignation of the LORD, because I have sinned against him, until he plead my cause, and execute judgment for me...

ungodly. or, unmerciful
the deceitful [heb.] a man of deceit and iniquity

Psalm 71:4 Deliver me, O my God, out of the hand of the wicked, out of the hand of the unrighteous and cruel man.

2 Samuel 15:31 And one told David, saying, Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom. And David said, O LORD, I pray you...

2 Samuel 16:20-23 Then said Absalom to Ahithophel, Give counsel among you what we shall do...

2 Samuel 17:1-4 Moreover Ahithophel said to Absalom, Let me now choose out twelve thousand men, and I will arise and pursue after David this night...

Cross References
Genesis 30:6
Then Rachel said, "God has judged me, and has also heard my voice and given me a son." Therefore she called his name Dan.

1 Samuel 24:15
May the LORD therefore be judge and give sentence between me and you, and see to it and plead my cause and deliver me from your hand."

Psalm 5:6
You destroy those who speak lies; the LORD abhors the bloodthirsty and deceitful man.

Psalm 7:8
The LORD judges the peoples; judge me, O LORD, according to my righteousness and according to the integrity that is in me.

Psalm 26:1
Vindicate me, O LORD, for I have walked in my integrity, and I have trusted in the LORD without wavering.

Psalm 35:1
Contend, O LORD, with those who contend with me; fight against those who fight against me!

Psalm 35:24
Vindicate me, O LORD, my God, according to your righteousness, and let them not rejoice over me!

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