Psalm 22:22
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
I will tell of your name to my brothers; in the midst of the congregation I will praise you:

King James Bible
I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

American Standard Version
I will declare thy name unto my brethren: In the midst of the assembly will I praise thee.

Douay-Rheims Bible
I will declare thy name to my brethren: in the midst of the church will I praise thee.

English Revised Version
I will declare thy name unto my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

Webster's Bible Translation
I will declare thy name to my brethren: in the midst of the congregation will I praise thee.

Psalm 22:22 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

(Heb.: 22:17-19)A continuation, referring back to Psalm 22:12, of the complaint of him who is dying and is already as it were dead. In the animal name כּלבים, figuratively descriptive of character, beside shamelessness and meanness, special prominence is given to the propensity for biting and worrying, i.e., for persecuting; hence Symmachus and Theodotion render it θηράται κυνηγέται. In Psalm 22:17 עדת מרעים takes the place of כלבים; and this again is followed by הקּיף in the plur. (to do anything in a circle, to surround by forming a circle round, a climactic synonym, like כּתּר to סבב) either per attractionem (cf. Psalm 140:10; 1 Samuel 2:4), or on account of the collective עדה. Tertullian renders it synagoga maleficorum, Jerome concilium pessimorum. But a faction gathered together for some evil purpose is also called עדה, e.g., עדת קרח. In Psalm 22:17 the meaning of כּארי, instar leonis, is either that, selecting a point of attack, they make the rounds of his hands and feet, just as a lion does its prey upon which it springs as soon as its prey stirs; or, that, standing round about him like lions, they make all defence impossible to his hands, and all escape impossible to his feet. But whether we take this ידי ורגלי as accusative of the members beside the accusative of the person (vid., Psalm 17:11), or as the object of the הקּיפוּ to be supplied from Psalm 22:17, it still remains harsh and drawling so far as the language is concerned. Perceiving this, the Masora on Isaiah 38:13 observes, that כּארי, in the two passages in which it occurs (Psalm 22:17; Isaiah 38:13), occurs in two different meanings (לישׁני בתרי); just as the Midrash then also understands כארי in the Psalm as a verb used of marking with conjuring, magic characters.

(Note: Hupfeld suspects this Masoretic remark (קמצין בתרי לישׁני כּארי ב) as a Christian interpolation, but it occurs in the alphabetical Masoreth register ותרויהון בתרי לישׁני ב ב. Even Elias Levita speaks of it with astonishment (in his מסרת המסרת [ed. Ginsburg, p. 253]) without doubting its genuineness, which must therefore have been confirmed, to his mind, by MS authority. Heidenheim also cites it in his edition of the Pentateuch, `ynym m'wr, on Numbers 24:9; and down to the present time no suspicion has been expressed on the part of Jewish critics, although all kinds of unsatisfactory attempts have been made to explain this Masoretic remark (e.g., in the periodical Biccure ha-'Ittim).)

Is the meaning of the Masora that כּארי, in the passage before us, is equivalent to כּארים? If so the form would be doubly Aramaic: both the participial form כּאר (which only occurs in Hebrew in verbs med. E) and the apocopated plural, the occurrence of which in Hebrew is certainly, with Gesenius and Ewald, to be acknowledged in rare instances (vid., Psalm 45:9, and compare on the other hand 2 Samuel 22:44), but which would here be a capricious form of expression most liable to be misapprehended. If כארי is to be understood as a verb, then it ought to be read כּארי. Tradition is here manifestly unreliable. Even in MSS the readings כּארוּ and כּארי are found. The former is attested both by the Masora on Numbers 24:9 and by Jacob ben Chajim in the Masora finalis as the MS Chethb.

(Note: The authenticity of this statement of the Masora כארי ידי ורגלי כארו כתיב may be disputed, especially since Jacob ben Chajim became a convert to Christianity, and other Masoretic testimonies do not mention a קרי וכתיב to כארי; nevertheless, in this instance, it would be premature to say that this statement is interpolated. Ant. Hulsius in his edition of the Psalter (1650) has written כארו in the margin according to the text of the Complutensis.)

Even the Targum, which renders mordent sicut leo manus et pedes meos, bears witness to the ancient hesitancy between the substantival and verbal rendering of the כארי. The other ancient versions have, without any doubt, read כארו. Aquila in the 1st edition of his translation rendered it ᾔσχυαν (from the Aramaic and Talmudic כּאר equals כּער to soil, part. כּאוּר, dirty, nasty); but this is not applicable to hands and feet, and therefore has nothing to stand upon. In the 2nd edition of his translation the same Aquila had instead of this, like Symmachus, "they have bound,"

(Note: Also in Jerome's independent translation the reading vinxerunt is found by the side of fixerunt, just as Abraham of Zante paraphrases it in his paraphrase of the Psalter in rhyme גּם כּארי ידי ורגלי אסרוּ. The want of a verb is too perceptible. Saadia supplies it in a different way "they compass me as a lion, to crush my hands and feet.")

after כר, Arab. krr, to twist, lace; but this rendering is improbable since the Hebrew has other words for "to bind," constringere. On the other hand nothing of any weight can be urged against the rendering of the lxx ὤρυξαν (Peshto בזעו, Vulg. foderunt, Jer. fixerunt); for (1) even if we do not suppose any special verb כּארוּ ,כּאר can be expanded from כּרוּ (כוּר) equals כּרוּ (כּרה) just in the same manner as ראמה, Zechariah 14:10 from רמה, cf. קאמיּא Daniel 7:16. And (2) that כוּר and כּרה can signify not merely to dig out and dig into, engrave, but also to dig through, pierce, is shown, - apart from the derivative מכרה (the similarity of the sound of which to μάχαιρα from the root μαχ, maksh, mraksh, is only accidental), - by the double meaning of the verbs נקר, ὀρύσσειν (e.g., ὀρύσσειν τὸν ἰσθμόν Herod. i. 174), fodere (hast); the lxx version of Psalm 40:7 would also support this meaning, if κατετρήσω (from κατατιτρᾶν) in that passage had been the original reading instead of κατηρτίσω. If כּארוּ be read, then Psalm 22:17, applied to David, perhaps under the influence of the figure of the attacking dogs (Bhl), says that the wicked bored into his hands and feet, and thus have made him fast, so that he is inevitably abandoned to their inhuman desires. The fulfilment in the nailing of the hands and (at least, the binding fast) of the feet of the Crucified One to the cross is clear. This is not the only passage in which it is predicated that the future Christ shall be murderously pierced; but it is the same in Isaiah 53:5 where He is said to be pierced (מחלל) on account of our sins, and in Zechariah 12:10, where Jahve describes Himself as ἐκκεντηθείς in Him.

Thus, therefore, the reading כּארוּ might at least have an equal right to be recognised with the present recepta, for which Hupfeld and Hitzig demand exclusive recognition; while Bttcher, - who reads כּארי, and gives this the meaning"springing round about (after the manner of dogs), - regards the sicut leo as "a production of meagre Jewish wit;" and also Thenius after taking all possible pains to clear it up gives it up as hopeless, and with Meier, adopting a different division of the verse, renders it: "a mob of the wicked has encompassed me like lions. On my hands and feet I can count all my bones." But then, how כּארי comes limping on after the rest! And how lamely does ידי ורגלי precede Psalm 22:18! How unnaturally does it limit עצמותי, with which one chiefly associates the thought of the breast and ribs, to the hands and feet! אספּר is potientialis. Above in Psalm 22:15 he has said that his bones are out of joint. There is no more reason for regarding this "I can count etc." as referring to emaciation from grief, than there is for regarding the former as referring to writing with agony. He can count them because he is forcibly stretched out, and thereby all his bones stand out. In this condition he is a mockery to his foes. הבּיט signifies the turning of one's gaze to anything, ראה בּ the fixing of one's sight upon it with pleasure. In Psalm 22:19 a new feature is added to those that extend far beyond David himself: they part my garments among them.... It does not say they purpose doing it, they do it merely in their mind, but they do it in reality. This never happened to David, or at least not in the literal sense of his words, in which it has happened to Christ. In Him Psalm 22:19 and Psalm 22:19 are literally fulfilled. The parting of the בּגדים by the soldiers dividing his ἰμάτια among them into four parts; the casting lots upon the לבוּשׁ by their not dividing the χιτὼν ἄῤῥαφος, but casting lots for it, John 19:23. לבוּשׁ is the garment which is put on the body that it may not be bare; בּגדים the clothes, which one wraps around one's self for a covering; hence לבושׁ is punningly explained in B. Sabbath 77b by לא בושׁה (with which one has no need to be ashamed of being naked) in distinction from גלימא, a mantle (that through which one appears כגולם, because it conceals the outline of the body). In Job 24:7, and frequently, לבושׁ is an undergarment, or shirt, what in Arabic is called absolutely Arab. ṯwb, thôb "the garment," or expressed according to the Roman distinction: the tunica in distinction from the toga, whose exact designation is מעיל. With Psalm 22:19 of this Psalm it is exactly as with Zechariah 9:9, cf. Matthew 21:5; in this instance also, the fulfilment has realised that which, in both phases of the synonymous expression, is seemingly identical.

(Note: On such fulfilments of prophecy, literal beyond all expectation, vid., Saat auf Hoffnung iii., 3, 47-51.)

Psalm 22:22 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

I will

Psalm 40:9 I have preached righteousness in the great congregation: see, I have not refrained my lips, O LORD, you know.

Psalm 71:18,19 Now also when I am old and gray headed, O God, forsake me not; until I have showed your strength to this generation...

John 7:25,26 Then said some of them of Jerusalem, Is not this he, whom they seek to kill...

Hebrews 2:11,12 For both he that sanctifies and they who are sanctified are all of one: for which cause he is not ashamed to call them brothers...

my brethren

Matthew 12:48,49 But he answered and said to him that told him, Who is my mother? and who are my brothers...

Matthew 25:40 And the King shall answer and say to them, Truly I say to you, Inasmuch as you have done it to one of the least of these my brothers...

Matthew 28:10 Then said Jesus to them, Be not afraid: go tell my brothers that they go into Galilee, and there shall they see me.

John 20:17 Jesus said to her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brothers, and say to them, I ascend to my Father...

Romans 8:29 For whom he did foreknow, he also did predestinate to be conformed to the image of his Son...

in the

Psalm 22:25 My praise shall be of you in the great congregation: I will pay my vows before them that fear him.

Psalm 40:9,10 I have preached righteousness in the great congregation: see, I have not refrained my lips, O LORD, you know...

Cross References
Hebrews 2:12
saying, "I will tell of your name to my brothers; in the midst of the congregation I will sing your praise."

Psalm 26:12
My foot stands on level ground; in the great assembly I will bless the LORD.

Psalm 35:18
I will thank you in the great congregation; in the mighty throng I will praise you.

Psalm 40:9
I have told the glad news of deliverance in the great congregation; behold, I have not restrained my lips, as you know, O LORD.

Psalm 40:10
I have not hidden your deliverance within my heart; I have spoken of your faithfulness and your salvation; I have not concealed your steadfast love and your faithfulness from the great congregation.

Psalm 68:26
"Bless God in the great congregation, the LORD, O you who are of Israel's fountain!"

Psalm 75:9
But I will declare it forever; I will sing praises to the God of Jacob.

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