Psalm 139:20
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
They speak against you with malicious intent; your enemies take your name in vain.

King James Bible
For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies take thy name in vain.

American Standard Version
For they speak against thee wickedly, And thine enemies take thy name in vain.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Because you say in thought: They shall receive thy cities in vain.

English Revised Version
For they speak against thee wickedly, and thine enemies take thy name in vain.

Webster's Bible Translation
For they speak against thee wickedly, and thy enemies take thy name in vain.

Psalm 139:20 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The fact that man is manifest to God even to the very bottom of his nature, and in every place, is now confirmed from the origin of man. The development of the child in the womb was looked upon by the Israelitish Chokma as one of the greatest mysteries, Ecclesiastes 11:5; and here the poet praises this coming into being as a marvellous work of the omniscient and omnipresent omnipotence of God. קנה here signifies condere; and סכך not: to cover, protect, as in Psalm 140:8; Job 40:22, prop. to cover with network, to hedge in, but: to plait, interweave, viz., with bones, sinews, and veins, like שׂכך in Job 10:11. The reins are made specially prominent in order to mark the, the seat of the tenderest, most secret emotions, as the work of Him who trieth the heart and the reins. The προσευχή becomes in Psalm 139:14 the εὐχαριστία: I give thanks unto Thee that I have wonderfully come into being under fearful circumstances, i.e., circumstances exciting a shudder, viz., of astonishment (נוראות as in Psalm 65:6). נפלה ( equals נפלא) is the passive to הפלה, Psalm 4:4; Psalm 17:7. Hitzig regards נפליתה (Thou hast shown Thyself wonderful), after the lxx, Syriac, Vulgate, and Jerome, as the only correct reading; but the thought which is thereby gained comes indeed to be expressed in the following line, Psalm 139:14, which sinks down into tautology in connection with this reading. `otsem (collectively equivalent to עצמים, Ecclesiastes 11:5) is the bones, the skeleton, and, starting from that idea, more generally the state of being as a sum-total of elements of being. אשׁר, without being necessarily a conjunction (Ew. 333, a), attaches itself to the suffix of עצמי. רקּם, "to be worked in different colours, or also embroidered," of the system of veins ramifying the body, and of the variegated colouring of its individual members, more particularly of the inward parts; perhaps, however, more generally with a retrospective conception of the colours of the outline following the undeveloped beginning, and of the forming of the members and of the organism in general.

(Note: In the Talmud the egg of a bird or of a reptile is called מרקּמת, when the outlines of the developed embryo are visible in it; and likewise the mole (mola), when traces of human; organization can be discerned in it.)

The mother's womb is here called not merely סתר (cf. Aeschylus' Eumenides, 665: ἐν σκοτοισι νηδύος τεθραμμένη, and the designation of the place where the foetus is formed as "a threefold darkness' in the Koran, Sur. xxxix. 8), the ē of which is retained here in pause (vid., Bttcher, Lehrbuch, 298), but by a bolder appellation תּחתּיּות ארץ, the lowest parts of the earth, i.e., the interior of the earth (vid., on Psalm 63:10) as being the secret laboratory of the earthly origin, with the same retrospective reference to the first formation of the human body out of the dust of the earth, as when Job says, Job 1:21 : "naked came I out of my mother's womb, and naked shall I return thither" - שׁמּה, viz., εἰς τὴν γῆν τὴν μητέρα πάντων, Sir. 40:1. The interior of Hades is also called בּטן שׁאול in Jonah 2:2, Sir. 51:5. According to the view of Scripture the mode of Adam's creation is repeated in the formation of every man, Job 33:6, cf. Job 33:4. The earth was the mother's womb of Adam, and the mother's womb out of which the child of Adam comes forth is the earth out of which it is taken.

Psalm 139:20 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

for they speak

Psalm 73:8,9 They are corrupt, and speak wickedly concerning oppression: they speak loftily...

Psalm 74:18,22,23 Remember this, that the enemy has reproached, O LORD, and that the foolish people have blasphemed your name...

Job 21:14,15 Therefore they say to God, Depart from us; for we desire not the knowledge of your ways...

Isaiah 37:23,28,29 Whom have you reproached and blasphemed? and against whom have you exalted your voice, and lifted up your eyes on high...

Jude 1:15 To execute judgment on all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed...

Revelation 13:6 And he opened his mouth in blasphemy against God, to blaspheme his name, and his tabernacle, and them that dwell in heaven.

thine

Psalm 2:1-3 Why do the heathen rage, and the people imagine a vain thing...

Exodus 20:7 You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain; for the LORD will not hold him guiltless that takes his name in vain.

Cross References
Jude 1:15
to execute judgment on all and to convict all the ungodly of all their deeds of ungodliness that they have committed in such an ungodly way, and of all the harsh things that ungodly sinners have spoken against him."

Exodus 20:7
"You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.

Deuteronomy 5:11
"'You shall not take the name of the LORD your God in vain, for the LORD will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.

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