Job 37:3
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Under the whole heaven he lets it go, and his lightning to the corners of the earth.

King James Bible
He directeth it under the whole heaven, and his lightning unto the ends of the earth.

American Standard Version
He sendeth it forth under the whole heaven, And his lightening unto the ends of the earth.

Douay-Rheims Bible
He beholdeth under all the heavens, and his light is upon the ends of the earth.

English Revised Version
He sendeth it forth under the whole heaven, and his lightning unto the ends of the earth.

Webster's Bible Translation
He directeth it under the whole heaven, and his lightning to the ends of the earth.

Job 37:3 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

30 Behold, He spreadeth His light over Himself,

And the roots of the sea He covereth.

31 For thereby He judgeth peoples,

He giveth food in abundance.

32 Both hands He covereth over with light,

And directeth it as one who hitteth the mark.

33 His noise announceth Him,

The cattle even that He is approaching.

A few expositors (Hirz., Hahn, Schlottm.) understand the celestial ocean, or the sea of the upper waters, by ים, Job 36:30; but it is more than questionable (vid., on Job 9:8) whether ים is used anywhere in this sense. Others as (Umbr., Ew.) the masses of water drawn up to the sky out of the depths of the sea, on which a Persian passage cited by Stick. (who, however, regards the Waw of ושׁרשׁי as Waw adaequationis) from Schebisteri may be compared: "an exhalation rises up out of the sea, and comes down at God's command upon the deserts." In both cases כּסּה would be equivalent to כסה עליו, obtegit se, which in and of itself is possible. But he who has once witnessed a storm in the neighbourhood of the sea, will decide in favour of one of the three following explanations: (1.) He covereth the uprooted ground of the sea (comp. Psalm 18:15.) with the subsiding waves (Blumenf.); but then Job 36:30 would require to be understood of the light of the brightening sky following the darkness of the storm, which is improbable in respect of Job 36:32. (2.) While the sky is brilliantly lighted up by the lightning, the abysses of the ocean are veiled in a so much deeper darkness; the observation is correct, but not less so another, that the lightning by a thunder-storm, especially when occurring at night, descends into the depths of the sea like snares that are cast down (פּחים, Psalm 11:6), and the water is momentarily changed as it were into a sea of flame; accordingly it may be explained, (3.) Behold, He spreadeth over Himself His light (viz., the light which incessantly illumines the world), and the roots of the sea, i.e., the sea down to its depths, He covers with it, since He makes it light through and through (Stuhlm. Wolfs.). Thus, as it appears, Jerome also interprets: Et (si voluerit) fulgurare lumine suo desuper, cardines quoque maris operiet.

(Note: The Targ. translates אור, Job 36:30, Job 36:32, by מטרא, pluvia, according to the erroneous opinion of R. Jochanan: כל אורה שׁנאמר באליהוא אינו אלא בירידת גשׁמים. Aben-Ezra and Kimchi explain even עלי־אור, Isaiah 18:4, according to this passage. The lxx translates Job 36:30: ἰδοὺ ἐκτενεῖ ἐπ ̓ αὐτὸν ἠδώ (Cod. Alex. επ αυτον το τοξον; Cod. Sinait. επ αυτην ηωδη (with the corrections ηδω and τοξον), probably according to the reading אידו for אורו. But what connection have ἠδώ and rainbow?)

This, that He makes the light of the lightning His manifestation (פּרשׂ עליו), and that He covers the earth down to the roots of the sea beneath with this light, is established in Job 36:31 from the design, partly judicial, partly beneficial, which exists in connection with it. בּם refers as neuter (like בּהם, Job 22:21) to the phenomena of the storm; מכבּיר (with the adverbial ל like לרב, Job 26:3), what makes great equals a making great, abundance (only here), is n. hiphil. after the form משׁהית, perdens equals perditio. In Job 36:32 God is represented under a military figure as a slinger of lightnings: He covers light over both hands, i.e., arms both completely with light (comp. סכסך and Arab. škk, totum se operire armis), and directs it (עליה referring to אור as fem. like Jeremiah 13:16, and sometimes in the Talmud). But what is the meaning of בּמפגּיע? Hahn takes מפגיע as n. hiphil. like מכביר: an object of attack; but what then becomes of the original Hiphil signification? It ought to be בּמפגּע (Job 7:20), as Olsh. wishes to read it. Ew., Hirz., and others, after the example of Theod. (lxx), Syr., Jer., translate: against the adversary; מפגיע ;yrasre signifies indeed the opposite in Isaiah 49:16 : intercessor (properly, one who assails with prayers); however, it would be possible for this word, just as פגע c. acc. (which signifies usually a hostile meeting, Exodus 5:3 and freq., but sometimes also a friendly, Isaiah 47:3; Isaiah 64:4), to be an ἐναντιόσημον. We prefer to abide by the usage of the language as we have it, according to which הפגיע signifies facere ut quid incurset s. petat, Isaiah 53:6; מפגיע therefore is one who hits, in opposition to one who misses the mark. The Beth is the Beth essentiae (vid., on Job 23:13), used here like Exodus 6:3; Psalm 55:19; Isaiah 40:10. With both hands He seizes the substance of the lightning, fills them with it so that they are completely covered by it, and gives it the command (appoints it its goal), a sure aimer!

Job 37:3 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

He

Psalm 77:13 Your way, O God, is in the sanctuary: who is so great a God as our God?

Psalm 97:4 His lightning enlightened the world: the earth saw, and trembled.

Matthew 24:27 For as the lightning comes out of the east, and shines even to the west; so shall also the coming of the Son of man be.

Revelation 11:19 And the temple of God was opened in heaven, and there was seen in his temple the ark of his testament: and there were lightning...

lightning. Heb. light. ends. Heb. wings

Job 38:13 That it might take hold of the ends of the earth, that the wicked might be shaken out of it?

Isaiah 11:12 And he shall set up an ensign for the nations, and shall assemble the outcasts of Israel...

*marg:

Cross References
Job 28:24
For he looks to the ends of the earth and sees everything under the heavens.

Job 28:26
when he made a decree for the rain and a way for the lightning of the thunder,

Job 37:4
After it his voice roars; he thunders with his majestic voice, and he does not restrain the lightnings when his voice is heard.

Job 37:11
He loads the thick cloud with moisture; the clouds scatter his lightning.

Job 37:12
They turn around and around by his guidance, to accomplish all that he commands them on the face of the habitable world.

Job 38:13
that it might take hold of the skirts of the earth, and the wicked be shaken out of it?

Job 38:35
Can you send forth lightnings, that they may go and say to you, 'Here we are'?

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