Isaiah 1:21
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
How the faithful city has become a whore, she who was full of justice! Righteousness lodged in her, but now murderers.

King James Bible
How is the faithful city become an harlot! it was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.

American Standard Version
How is the faithful city become a harlot! she that was full of justice! righteousness lodged in her, but now murderers.

Douay-Rheims Bible
How is the faithful city, that was full of judgment, become a harlot? justice dwelt in it, but now murderers.

English Revised Version
How is the faithful city become an harlot! she that was full of judgment! righteousness lodged in her, but now murderers.

Webster's Bible Translation
How is the faithful city become a harlot! it was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now murderers.

Isaiah 1:21 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Their self-righteousness, so far as it rested upon sacrifices and festal observances, was now put to shame, and the last inward bulwark of the sham holy nation was destroyed: "And if ye stretch out your hands, I hide my eyes from you; if ye make ever so much praying, I do not hear: your hands are full of blood." Their praying was also an abomination to God. Prayer is something common to man: it is the interpreter of religious feeling, which intervenes and mediates between God and man;

(Note: The primary idea of hithpallel and tephillah is not to be obtained from Deuteronomy 9:18 and Ezra 10:1, as Dietrich and Frst suppose, who make hithpallel equivalent to hithnappel, to throw one's self down; but from 1 Samuel 2:25, "If a man sin against a man, the authorities right him" (וּפללו אלהים: it is quite a mistake to maintain that Elohim cannot have this meaning), i.e., they can set right the relation which he has disturbed. "But if one sin against Jehovah, who shall mediate for him (מי יתפּלּל־לו, quis intercedat pro eo)?" We may see from this that prayer is regarded as mediation, which sets right and establishes fellowship; and hithpallel signifies to make one's self a healer of divisions, or to settle for one's self, to strive after a settlement (sibi, pro se, intercedere: cf., Job 19:16, hithchannen, sibi propitium facere; Job 13:27, hithchakkah, sibi insculpere, like the Arabic ichtatta, to bound off for one's self).)

it is the true spiritual sacrifice. The law contains no command to pray, and, with the exception of Deuteronomy 26, no form of prayer. Praying is so natural to man as man, that there was no necessity for any precept to enforce this, the fundamental expression of the true relation to God. The prophet therefore comes to prayer last of all, so as to trace back their sham-holiness, which was corrupt even to this the last foundation, to its real nothingness. "Spread out," parash, or pi pērēsh, to stretch out; used with Cappaim to denote swimming in Isaiah 25:11. It is written here before a strong suffix, as in many other passages, e.g., Isaiah 52:12, with the inflection i instead of e. This was the gesture of a man in prayer, who spread out his hands, and when spread out, stretched them towards heaven, or to the most holy place in the temple, and indeed (as if with the feeling of emptiness and need, and with a desire to receive divine gifts) held up the hollow or palm of his hand (Cappaim: cf., tendere palmas, e.g., Virg. Aen. xii. 196, tenditque ad sidera palmas). However much they might stand or lie before Him in the attitude of prayer, Jehovah hid His eyes, i.e., His omniscience knew nothing of it; and even though they might pray loud and long (gam chi, etiamsi: compare the simple Chi, Jeremiah 14:12), He was, as it were, deaf to it all. We should expect Chi here to introduce the explanation; but the more excited the speaker, the shorter and more unconnected his words. The plural damim always denotes human blood as the result of some unnatural act, and then the bloody deed and the bloodguiltiness itself. The plural number neither refers to the quantity nor to the separate drops, but is the plural of production, which Dietrich has so elaborately discussed in his Abhandlung, p. 40.

(Note: As Chittah signified corn standing in the field, and Chittim corn threshed and brought to the market, so damim was not blood when flowing through the veins, but when it had flowed out-in other words, when it had been violently shed. (For the Talmudic misinterpretation of the true state of the case, see my Genesis, p. 626.))

The terrible damim stands very emphatically before the governing verb, pointing to many murderous acts that had been committed, and deeds of violence akin to murder. Not, indeed, that we are to understand the words as meaning that there was really blood upon their hands when they stretched them out in prayer; but before God, from whom no outward show can hide the true nature of things, however clean they might have washed themselves, they still dripped with blood. The expostulations of the people against the divine accusations have thus been negatively set forth and met in Isaiah 1:11-15 : Jehovah could not endure their work-righteous worship, which was thus defiled with unrighteous works, even to murder itself. The divine accusation is now positively established in Isaiah 1:16, Isaiah 1:17, by the contrast drawn between the true righteousness of which the accused were destitute, and the false righteousness of which they boasted. The crushing charge is here changed into an admonitory appeal; and the love which is hidden behind the wrath, and would gladly break through, already begins to disclose itself. There are eight admonitions. The first three point to the removal of evil; the other five to the performance of what is good.

Isaiah 1:21 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the faithful

Isaiah 48:2 For they call themselves of the holy city, and stay themselves on the God of Israel; The LORD of hosts is his name.

Nehemiah 11:1 And the rulers of the people dwelled at Jerusalem: the rest of the people also cast lots...

Psalm 46:4 There is a river, the streams whereof shall make glad the city of God, the holy place of the tabernacles of the most High.

Psalm 48:1,8 Great is the LORD, and greatly to be praised in the city of our God, in the mountain of his holiness...

Hosea 11:12 Ephraim compasses me about with lies, and the house of Israel with deceit: but Judah yet rules with God...

Zechariah 8:3 Thus said the LORD; I am returned to Zion, and will dwell in the middle of Jerusalem: and Jerusalem shall be called a city of truth...

Hebrews 12:22 But you are come to mount Sion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company of angels,

become

Jeremiah 2:20,21 For of old time I have broken your yoke, and burst your bands; and you said, I will not transgress...

Jeremiah 3:1 They say, If a man put away his wife, and she go from him, and become another man's, shall he return to her again?...

Lamentations 1:8,9 Jerusalem has grievously sinned; therefore she is removed: all that honored her despise her, because they have seen her nakedness: yes...

Ezekiel 16:1 Again the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

Ezekiel 22:1 Moreover the word of the LORD came to me, saying,

Ezekiel 23:1 The word of the LORD came again to me, saying,

Luke 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which kill the prophets, and stone them that are sent to you...

Revelation 11:2,8 But the court which is without the temple leave out, and measure it not; for it is given to the Gentiles...

it was full

Isaiah 5:7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment...

2 Samuel 8:15 And David reigned over all Israel; and David executed judgment and justice to all his people.

2 Chronicles 19:9 And he charged them, saying, Thus shall you do in the fear of the LORD, faithfully, and with a perfect heart.

Ezekiel 22:3-7 Then say you, Thus said the Lord GOD, The city sheds blood in the middle of it, that her time may come...

Micah 3:2,3 Who hate the good, and love the evil; who pluck off their skin from off them, and their flesh from off their bones...

Zephaniah 3:1-3 Woe to her that is filthy and polluted, to the oppressing city!...

Acts 7:52 Which of the prophets have not your fathers persecuted? and they have slain them which showed before of the coming of the Just One...

Cross References
Revelation 17:1
Then one of the seven angels who had the seven bowls came and said to me, "Come, I will show you the judgment of the great prostitute who is seated on many waters,

Isaiah 1:22
Your silver has become dross, your best wine mixed with water.

Isaiah 57:3
But you, draw near, sons of the sorceress, offspring of the adulterer and the loose woman.

Isaiah 59:3
For your hands are defiled with blood and your fingers with iniquity; your lips have spoken lies; your tongue mutters wickedness.

Isaiah 59:14
Justice is turned back, and righteousness stands far away; for truth has stumbled in the public squares, and uprightness cannot enter.

Isaiah 59:15
Truth is lacking, and he who departs from evil makes himself a prey. The LORD saw it, and it displeased him that there was no justice.

Jeremiah 2:20
"For long ago I broke your yoke and burst your bonds; but you said, 'I will not serve.' Yes, on every high hill and under every green tree you bowed down like a whore.

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