Galatians 3:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
O foolish Galatians! Who has bewitched you? It was before your eyes that Jesus Christ was publicly portrayed as crucified.

King James Bible
O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

American Standard Version
O foolish Galatians, who did bewitch you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified?

Douay-Rheims Bible
O senseless Galatians, who hath bewitched you that you should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been set forth, crucified among you?

English Revised Version
O foolish Galatians, who did bewitch you, before whose eyes Jesus Christ was openly set forth crucified?

Webster's Bible Translation
O foolish Galatians, who hath bewitched you, that ye should not obey the truth, before whose eyes Jesus Christ hath been evidently set forth, crucified among you?

Weymouth New Testament
You foolish Galatians! Whose sophistry has bewitched you--you to whom Jesus Christ has been vividly portrayed as on the Cross?

Galatians 3:1 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Foolish (ἀνόητοι)

See on Luke 24:25. In N.T. and lxx always in an active sense. See Luke 24:25; Romans 1:14; 1 Timothy 6:9; Titus 3:3. Νοῦς is used by Paul mainly with an ethical reference, as the faculty of moral judgment. See on Romans 7:23. Ἀνόητος therefore indicates a folly which is the outgrowth of a moral defect. Paul is not alluding to a national characteristic of the Galatians.

Hath bewitched (ἐβάσκανεν)

N.T.o. In Class. with accusative, to slander, malign; with dative, to envy, grudge, use ill words to another, bewitch by spells. For the verb in lxx, see Deuteronomy 28:54, Deuteronomy 28:56; Sir. 14:6, 8. The noun βασκανία (not in N.T.) in lxx, Wisd. 4:12 (the bewitching); 4 Macc. 1:26 (the evil eye); 4 Macc. 2:15 (slander). See also Plato, Phaedo, 95 B (evil eye). The adjective βάσκανος (not in N.T.) appears in lxx, Proverbs 23:6; Proverbs 28:22 (having an evil eye); Sir. 14:3; 18:18; 37:11 (envious). See also Aristoph. Knights, 103; Plut. 571 (slanderous, a calumniator). Ignatius (Romans 3. uses it of grudging the triumph of martyrdom. The two ideas of envy or malice and the evil eye combine in the Lat. invidere, to look maliciously. The ὀφθαλμὸς evil eye is found Mark 7:22. Paul's metaphor here is: who hath cast an evil spell upon you? Chrysostom, followed by Lightfoot, thinks that the passage indicates, not only the baleful influence on the Galatians, but also the envious spirit of the false teachers who envy them their liberty in Christ. This is doubtful.

Before whose eyes (οἷς κατ' ὀφθαλμοὺς)

The Greek is stronger: unto whom, over against your very eyes. The phrase κατ' ὀφθαλμοὺς N.T.o , but quite frequent in lxx. Comp. κατὰ πρόσωπον to the face, Galatians 2:11.

Hath been evidently set forth (προεγράφη)

The different explanations turn on the meaning assigned to προ: either formerly, or openly, publicly. Thus openly portrayed. The use of προγράφειν in this sense is more than doubtful. Previously written. In favor of this is the plain meaning in two of the three other N.T. passages where it occurs: Romans 15:4; Ephesians 3:3. Was posted up, placarded. It is the usual word to describe public notices or proclamations. The more probable sense combines the first and third interpretations. Rend. openly set forth. This suits before whose eyes, and illustrates the suggestion of the evil eye in bewitched. Who could have succeeded in bringing you under the spell of an evil eye, when directly before your own eyes stood revealed the crucified Christ?

Crucified among you (ἐν ὑμῖν ἐσταυρωμένος)

Ἑν ὑμῖν among you is omitted in the best texts. Crucified emphatically closes the sentence. Christ was openly set forth as crucified.

Galatians 3:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Foolish.

Galatians 3:3 Are you so foolish? having begun in the Spirit, are you now made perfect by the flesh?

Deuteronomy 32:6 Do you thus requite the LORD, O foolish people and unwise? is not he your father that has bought you? has he not made you...

1 Samuel 13:13 And Samuel said to Saul, You have done foolishly: you have not kept the commandment of the LORD your God, which he commanded you...

Matthew 7:26 And every one that hears these sayings of mine, and does them not, shall be likened to a foolish man...

Luke 24:25 Then he said to them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:

Ephesians 5:15 See then that you walk circumspectly, not as fools, but as wise,

1 Timothy 6:4 He is proud, knowing nothing, but doting about questions and strifes of words, whereof comes envy, strife, railings, evil surmisings,

*marg

who.

Galatians 1:6 I marvel that you are so soon removed from him that called you into the grace of Christ to another gospel:

Galatians 4:9 But now, after that you have known God, or rather are known of God, how turn you again to the weak and beggarly elements...

Galatians 5:7,8 You did run well; who did hinder you that you should not obey the truth...

Matthew 24:24 For there shall arise false Christs, and false prophets, and shall show great signs and wonders; so that, if it were possible...

Acts 8:9-11 But there was a certain man, called Simon, which beforetime in the same city used sorcery, and bewitched the people of Samaria...

2 Corinthians 11:3,13-15 But I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety...

Ephesians 4:14 That we from now on be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men...

2 Thessalonians 2:9-12 Even him, whose coming is after the working of Satan with all power and signs and lying wonders...

2 Peter 2:18 For when they speak great swelling words of vanity, they allure through the lusts of the flesh, through much wantonness...

Revelation 2:20 Notwithstanding I have a few things against you, because you suffer that woman Jezebel, which calls herself a prophetess...

Revelation 13:13,14 And he does great wonders, so that he makes fire come down from heaven on the earth in the sight of men...

Revelation 18:3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her...

ye.

Galatians 2:14 But when I saw that they walked not uprightly according to the truth of the gospel, I said to Peter before them all, If you, being a Jew...

Galatians 5:7 You did run well; who did hinder you that you should not obey the truth?

Acts 6:7 And the word of God increased; and the number of the disciples multiplied in Jerusalem greatly...

Romans 2:8 But to them that are contentious, and do not obey the truth, but obey unrighteousness, indignation and wrath,

Romans 6:17 But God be thanked, that you were the servants of sin...

Romans 10:16 But they have not all obeyed the gospel. For Esaias said, Lord, who has believed our report?

2 Corinthians 10:5 Casting down imaginations, and every high thing that exalts itself against the knowledge of God...

2 Thessalonians 1:8 In flaming fire taking vengeance on them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ:

Hebrews 5:9 And being made perfect, he became the author of eternal salvation to all them that obey him;

Hebrews 11:8 By faith Abraham, when he was called to go out into a place which he should after receive for an inheritance, obeyed; and he went out...

1 Peter 1:22 Seeing you have purified your souls in obeying the truth through the Spirit to unfeigned love of the brothers...

1 Peter 4:17 For the time is come that judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us...

Jesus Christ.

1 Corinthians 1:23,24 But we preach Christ crucified, to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the Greeks foolishness...

1 Corinthians 2:2 For I determined not to know any thing among you, save Jesus Christ, and him crucified.

1 Corinthians 11:26 For as often as you eat this bread, and drink this cup, you do show the Lord's death till he come.

Ephesians 3:8 To me, who am less than the least of all saints, is this grace given...

Cross References
Acts 16:6
And they went through the region of Phrygia and Galatia, having been forbidden by the Holy Spirit to speak the word in Asia.

1 Corinthians 1:23
but we preach Christ crucified, a stumbling block to Jews and folly to Gentiles,

Galatians 1:2
and all the brothers who are with me, To the churches of Galatia:

Galatians 5:11
But if I, brothers, still preach circumcision, why am I still being persecuted? In that case the offense of the cross has been removed.

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