Exodus 28:36
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
“You shall make a plate of pure gold and engrave on it, like the engraving of a signet, ‘Holy to the LORD.’

King James Bible
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

American Standard Version
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLY TO JEHOVAH.

Douay-Rheims Bible
Thou shalt make also a plate of the purest gold: wherein thou shalt grave with engraver's work, Holy to the Lord.

English Revised Version
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and grave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLY TO THE LORD.

Webster's Bible Translation
And thou shalt make a plate of pure gold, and engrave upon it, like the engravings of a signet, HOLINESS TO THE LORD.

Exodus 28:36 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

Into this choshen Moses was to put the Urim and Thummim, that they might be upon his heart when he came before Jehovah, and that he might thus constantly bear the right (mishpat) of the children of Israel upon his heart before Jehovah. It is evident at once from this, that the Urim and Thummim were to bring the right of the children of Israel before the Lord, and that the breastplate was called choshen mishpat because the Urim and Thummim were in it. Moreover it also follows from the expression אל נתתּ, both here and in Leviticus 8:8, that the Urim and Thummim were not only distinct from the choshen, but were placed in it, and not merely suspended upon it, as Knobel supposes. For although the lxx have adopted the rendering ἐπιτιθέναι ἐπί, the phrase is constantly used to denote putting or laying one thing into another, and never (not even in 1 Samuel 6:8 and 2 Samuel 11:16) merely placing one thing upon or against another. For this, על נתן is the expression invariably used in the account before us (cf. Exodus 28:14 and Exodus 28:23.).

What the Urim and Thummim really were, cannot be determined with certainty, either from the names themselves, or from any other circumstances connected with them.

(Note: The leading opinions and the most important writings upon the subject are given in my Bibl. Archaeol. 39, note 9.)

The lxx render the words δήλωσις (or δῆλος) καὶ ἀλήθεια, i.e., revelation and truth. This expresses with tolerable accuracy the meaning of Urim (אוּרים light, illumination), but Thummim (תּמּים) means integritas, inviolability, perfection, and not ἀλήθεια. The rendering given by Symm. and Theod., viz., φωτισμοὶ καὶ τελειώσεις, illumination and completion, is much better; and there is no good ground for giving up this rendering in favour of that of the lxx, since the analogy between the Urim and Thummim and the ἄγαλμα of sapphire-stones, or the ζώδιον of precious stones, which was worn by the Egyptian high priest suspended by a golden chain, and called ἀλήθεια (Aelian. var. hist. 14, 34; Diod. Sic. i. 48, 75), sufficiently explains the rendering ἀλήθεια, which the lxx have given to Thummim, but it by no means warrants Knobel's conclusion, that the Hebrews had adopted the Egyptian names along with the thing itself. The words are therefore to be explained from the Coptic. The Urim and Thummim are analogous, it is true, to the εἰκῶν τῆς ἀληθείας, which the Egyptian ἀρχιδικαστής hung round his neck, but they are by no means identical with it, or to be regarded as two figures which were a symbolical representation of revelation and truth. If Aaron was to bring the right of the children of Israel before Jehovah in the breastplate that was placed upon his breast with the Urim and Thummim, the latter, if they were intended to represent anything, could only be symbolical of the right or rightful condition of Israel. But the words do not warrant any such conclusion. If the Urim and Thummim had been intended to represent any really existing thing, their nature, or the mode of preparing them, would certainly have been described. Now, if we refer to Numbers 27:21, where Joshua as the commander of the nation is instructed to go to the high priest Eleazar, that the latter may inquire before Jehovah, through the right of Urim, how the whole congregation should walk and act, we can draw no other conclusion, than that the Urim and Thummim are to be regarded as a certain medium, given by the Lord to His people, through which, whenever the congregation required divine illumination to guide its actions, that illumination was guaranteed, and by means of which the rights of Israel, when called in question or endangered, were to be restored, and that this medium was bound up with the official dress of the high priest, though its precise character can no longer be determined. Consequently the Urim and Thummim did not represent the illumination and right of Israel, but were merely a promise of these, a pledge that the Lord would maintain the rights of His people, and give them through the high priest the illumination requisite for their protection. Aaron was to bear the children of Israel upon his heart, in the precious stones to be worn upon his breast with the names of the twelve tribes. The heart, according to the biblical view, is the centre of the spiritual life, - not merely of the willing, desiring, thinking life, but of the emotional life, as the seat of the feelings and affections (see Delitzsch bibl. Psychologie, pp. 203ff.). Hence to bear upon the heart does not merely mean to bear in mind, but denotes "that personal intertwining with the life of another, by virtue of which the high priest, as Philo expresses it, was τοῦ σύμπαντος ἔθνους συγγενὴς καὶ ἀγχιστεὺς κοινός (Spec. leg. ii. 321), and so stood in the deepest sympathy with those for whom he interceded" (Oehler in Herzog's Cycl.). As he entered the holy place with this feeling, and in this attitude, of which the choshen was the symbol, he brought Israel into remembrance before Jehovah that the Lord might accept His people; and when furnished with the Urim and Thummim, he appeared before Jehovah as the advocate of the people's rights, that he might receive for the congregation the illumination required to protect and uphold those rights.

Exodus 28:36 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

a plate of pure gold. The word tzitz, which we translate a plate, properly signifies a flower. It is rendered by the LXX, a leaf, and is called nezer, a crown in ch

Exodus 29:6 And you shall put the turban on his head, and put the holy crown on the turban.

and a diadem, by the author of the book of Wisdom, ch

Exodus 28:24 And you shall put the two wreathen chains of gold in the two rings which are on the ends of the breastplate.

. Josephus says that it was adorned with three rows of the flower. It was two fingers broad, of a circular form, suited to the shape of the head, and so long that it reached from ear to ear, and was fastened upon a blue lace or ribband, which was tied behind the head; and as the plate reached only half round the head, the remaining part of the ribband was highly ornamented with artificial flowers. grave upon it.

Exodus 28:9,11 And you shall take two onyx stones, and grave on them the names of the children of Israel...

Holiness

Exodus 39:30 And they made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote on it a writing, like to the engravings of a signet...

Leviticus 8:9 And he put the turban on his head; also on the turban, even on his forefront, did he put the golden plate, the holy crown...

Leviticus 10:3 Then Moses said to Aaron, This is it that the LORD spoke, saying, I will be sanctified in them that come near me...

Leviticus 19:2 Speak to all the congregation of the children of Israel, and say to them, You shall be holy: for I the LORD your God am holy.

Psalm 93:5 Your testimonies are very sure: holiness becomes your house, O LORD, for ever.

Ezekiel 43:12 This is the law of the house; On the top of the mountain the whole limit thereof round about shall be most holy. Behold...

Zechariah 14:20 In that day shall there be on the bells of the horses, HOLINESS UNTO THE LORD...

Hebrews 7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;

Hebrews 12:14 Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord:

1 Peter 1:15,16 But as he which has called you is holy, so be you holy in all manner of conversation...

1 Peter 2:9 But you are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood, an holy nation, a peculiar people...

Revelation 21:27 And there shall in no wise enter into it any thing that defiles, neither whatever works abomination, or makes a lie...

Cross References
Exodus 28:35
And it shall be on Aaron when he ministers, and its sound shall be heard when he goes into the Holy Place before the LORD, and when he comes out, so that he does not die.

Exodus 28:37
And you shall fasten it on the turban by a cord of blue. It shall be on the front of the turban.

Exodus 29:6
And you shall set the turban on his head and put the holy crown on the turban.

Exodus 39:30
They made the plate of the holy crown of pure gold, and wrote on it an inscription, like the engraving of a signet, "Holy to the LORD."

Exodus 39:31
And they tied to it a cord of blue to fasten it on the turban above, as the LORD had commanded Moses.

Leviticus 8:9
And he set the turban on his head, and on the turban, in front, he set the golden plate, the holy crown, as the LORD commanded Moses.

Isaiah 23:18
Her merchandise and her wages will be holy to the LORD. It will not be stored or hoarded, but her merchandise will supply abundant food and fine clothing for those who dwell before the LORD.

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