Exodus 13:21
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud to lead them along the way, and by night in a pillar of fire to give them light, that they might travel by day and by night.

King James Bible
And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; to go by day and night:

American Standard Version
And Jehovah went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way, and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light, that they might go by day and by night:

Douay-Rheims Bible
And the Lord went before them to shew the way by day in a pillar of a cloud, and by night in a pillar of fire: that he might be the guide of their journey at both times.

English Revised Version
And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of cloud, to lead them the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light; that they might go by day and by night:

Webster's Bible Translation
And the LORD went before them by day in a pillar of a cloud, to lead them in the way; and by night in a pillar of fire, to give them light: to go by day and night.

Exodus 13:21 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

לשׁלּחנוּ הקשׁה: "he made hard" (sc., his heart, cf. Exodus 7:3) "to let us go." The sanctification of the first-born is enforced in Exodus 13:16 in the same terms as the keeping of the feast of Mazzoth in Exodus 13:9, with this exception, that instead of לזכרון we have לטוטפת, as in Deuteronomy 6:8, and Deuteronomy 11:18. The word טוטפת signifies neither amulet nor στίγματα, but "binding" or headbands, as is evident from the Chaldee טוטפא armlet (2 Samuel 1:10), טוטפתּא tiara (Esther 8:15; Ezekiel 24:17, Ezekiel 24:23). This command was interpreted literally by the Talmudists, and the use of tephillim, phylacteries (Matthew 23:5), founded upon it;

(Note: Possibly these scrolls were originally nothing more than a literal compliance with the figurative expression, or a change of the figure into a symbol, so that the custom did not arise from a pure misunderstanding; though at a later period the symbolical character gave place more and more to the casual misinterpretation. On the phylacteries generally, see my Archologie and Herzog's Cycl.)

the Caraites, on the contrary, interpreted it figuratively, as a proverbial expression for constant reflection upon, and fulfilment of, the divine commands. The correctness of the latter is obvious from the words themselves, which do not say that the commands are to be written upon scrolls, but only that they are to be to the Israelites for signs upon the hand, and for bands between the eyes, i.e., they are to be kept in view like memorials upon the forehead and the hand. The expression in Deuteronomy 6:8, "Thou shalt bind them for a sign upon thine hand, and they shall be as frontlets between thine eyes," does not point at all to the symbolizing of the divine commands by an outward sign to be worn upon the hand, or to bands with passages of the law inscribed upon them, to be worn on the forehead between the eyes; nor does the "advance in Deuteronomy 6:8 from heart to word, and from word to hand or act," necessarily lead to the peculiar notion of Schultz, that "the sleeve and turban were to be used as reminders of the divine commands, the former by being fastened to the hand in a peculiar way, the latter by an end being brought down upon the forehead." The line of thought referred to merely expresses the idea, that the Israelites were not only to retain the commands of God in their hearts, and to confess them with the mouth, but to fulfil them with the hand, or in act and deed, and thus to show themselves in their whole bearing as the guardians and observers of the law. As the hand is the medium of action, and carrying in the hand represents handling, so the space between the eyes, or the forehead, is that part of the body which is generally visible, and what is worn there is worn to be seen. This figurative interpretation is confirmed and placed beyond doubt by such parallel passages as Proverbs 3:3, "Bind them (the commandments) about thy neck; write them upon the tables of thine heart" (cf. Proverbs 3:21, Proverbs 3:22, Exodus 4:21; Exodus 6:21-22; Exodus 7:3).

Exodus 13:21 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Exodus 14:19-24 And the angel of God, which went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them...

Exodus 40:34-38 Then a cloud covered the tent of the congregation, and the glory of the LORD filled the tabernacle...

Numbers 9:15-23 And on the day that the tabernacle was reared up the cloud covered the tabernacle, namely, the tent of the testimony...

Numbers 10:34 And the cloud of the LORD was on them by day, when they went out of the camp.

Numbers 14:14 And they will tell it to the inhabitants of this land: for they have heard that you LORD are among this people...

Deuteronomy 1:33 Who went in the way before you, to search you out a place to pitch your tents in, in fire by night...

Nehemiah 9:12,19 Moreover you led them in the day by a cloudy pillar; and in the night by a pillar of fire...

Psalm 78:14 In the daytime also he led them with a cloud, and all the night with a light of fire.

Psalm 99:7 He spoke to them in the cloudy pillar: they kept his testimonies, and the ordinance that he gave them.

Psalm 105:39 He spread a cloud for a covering; and fire to give light in the night.

Isaiah 4:5,6 And the LORD will create on every dwelling place of mount Zion, and on her assemblies, a cloud and smoke by day...

1 Corinthians 10:1,2 Moreover, brothers, I would not that you should be ignorant, how that all our fathers were under the cloud...

Cross References
1 Corinthians 10:1
For I do not want you to be unaware, brothers, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea,

Exodus 14:19
Then the angel of God who was going before the host of Israel moved and went behind them, and the pillar of cloud moved from before them and stood behind them,

Exodus 14:24
And in the morning watch the LORD in the pillar of fire and of cloud looked down on the Egyptian forces and threw the Egyptian forces into a panic,

Exodus 16:10
And as soon as Aaron spoke to the whole congregation of the people of Israel, they looked toward the wilderness, and behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.

Exodus 33:9
When Moses entered the tent, the pillar of cloud would descend and stand at the entrance of the tent, and the LORD would speak with Moses.

Exodus 33:10
And when all the people saw the pillar of cloud standing at the entrance of the tent, all the people would rise up and worship, each at his tent door.

Exodus 40:38
For the cloud of the LORD was on the tabernacle by day, and fire was in it by night, in the sight of all the house of Israel throughout all their journeys.

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ESV Text Edition: 2016. The Holy Bible, English Standard Version® copyright © 2001 by Crossway Bibles, a publishing ministry of Good News Publishers.
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