2 Kings 21:9
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
But they did not listen, and Manasseh led them astray to do more evil than the nations had done whom the LORD destroyed before the people of Israel.

King James Bible
But they hearkened not: and Manasseh seduced them to do more evil than did the nations whom the LORD destroyed before the children of Israel.

American Standard Version
But they hearkened not: and Manasseh seduced them to do that which is evil more than did the nations whom Jehovah destroyed before the children of Israel.

Douay-Rheims Bible
But they hearkened not: but were seduced by Manasses, to do evil more than the nations which the Lord destroyed before the children of Israel.

English Revised Version
But they hearkened not: and Manasseh seduced them to do that which is evil more than did the nations, whom the LORD destroyed before the children of Israel.

Webster's Bible Translation
But they hearkened not: and Manasseh seduced them to do more evil than did the nations whom the LORD destroyed before the children of Israel.

2 Kings 21:9 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

ויּבן ויּשׁב, "he built again" the high places, which Hezekiah had destroyed (2 Kings 18:4), erected altars for Baal and an Asherah, like Ahab of Israel (1 Kings 16:32-33). האשׁרה is the image of Asherah mentioned in 2 Kings 21:7, whereas in the Chronicles the thought is generalized by the plurals לבּעלים and האשׁרות. To these two kinds of idolatry, the idolatrous bamoth and the (true) Baal-and Asherah-worship, Manasseh added as a third kind the worship of all the host of heaven, which had not occurred among the Israelites before the Assyrian era, and was probably of Assyrian or Chaldaean origin. This worship differed from the Syrophoenician star-worship, in which sun and moon were worshipped under the names of Baal and Astarte as the bearers of the male and female powers of nature, and was pure star-worship, based upon the idea of the unchangeableness of the stars in contradistinction to the perishableness of everything earthly, according to which the stars were worshipped not merely as the originators of all rise and decay in nature, but also as the leaders and regulators of sublunary things (see Movers, Phniz. i. pp. 65 and 161). This star-worship was a later development of the primary star-worship of Ssabism, in which the stars were worshipped without any image, in the open air or upon the housetops, by simple contemplation, the oldest and comparatively the purest form of deification of nature, to which the earlier Arabians and the worshippers of the sun among the Ssabians (Zabians) were addicted (cf. Delitzsch on Job 31:26-27), and which is mentioned and forbidden in Deuteronomy 4:19 and Deuteronomy 17:3. In this later form the sun had sacred chariots and horses as among the Persians (2 Kings 23:11), and incense was offered to the stars, with the face turned towards the east, upon altars which were built either upon housetops, as in the case of the Nabataeans (Strabo, xvi. 784), or within the limits of the temple in the two courts (cf. Ezekiel 8:16, also 2 Kings 21:5; 2 Kings 23:12, and 2 Chronicles 33:5; Jeremiah 19:13; Zephaniah 1:5). This burning of incense took place not merely to the sun and moon, but also to the signs of the zodiac and to all the host of heaven, i.e., to all the stars (2 Kings 23:5); by which we are no doubt to understand that the sun, moon, planets and other stars, were worshipped in conjunction with the zodiac, and with this were connected astrology, augury, and the casting of nativities, as in the case of the later so-called Chaldaeans.

(Note: Movers (Phniz. i. p. 65) correctly observes, that "in all the books of the Old Testament which are written before the Assyrian period there is no trace of any (?) star-worship; not that the Phoenician (Canaanitish) gods had not also a sidereal significance, but because this element was only a subordinate one, and the expressions, sun, moon, and stars, and all the host of heaven, which are not met with before, become for the first time common now," - although his proofs of the difference between the Assyrian star-worship and the Phoenician and Babylonian image-worship stand greatly in need of critical sifting.)

This star-worship is more minutely described in 2 Kings 21:4, 2 Kings 21:5. The two verses are closely connected. The מזבּחות וּבנה of 2 Kings 21:4 is resumed in מזב ויּבן in 2 Kings 21:5, and the יי בּבית of 2 Kings 21:4 is more minutely defined in the יי בּית חצרות בּשׁתּי of. 2 Kings 21:5. "In the two courts:" not merely in the outer court, but even in the court of the priests, which was set apart for the worship of Jehovah.

2 Kings 21:9 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

they hearkened.

2 Chronicles 36:16 But they mocked the messengers of God, and despised his words, and misused his prophets...

Ezra 9:10,11 And now, O our God, what shall we say after this? for we have forsaken your commandments...

Nehemiah 9:26,29,30 Nevertheless they were disobedient, and rebelled against you, and cast your law behind their backs...

Psalm 81:10 I am the LORD your God, which brought you out of the land of Egypt: open your mouth wide, and I will fill it.

Daniel 9:6,10,11 Neither have we listened to your servants the prophets, which spoke in your name to our kings, our princes, and our fathers...

Luke 13:34 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, which kill the prophets, and stone them that are sent to you...

John 15:22 If I had not come and spoken to them, they had not had sin: but now they have no cloak for their sin.

James 4:17 Therefore to him that knows to do good, and does it not, to him it is sin.

seduced.

1 Kings 14:16 And he shall give Israel up because of the sins of Jeroboam, who did sin, and who made Israel to sin.

2 Chronicles 33:9 So Manasseh made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to err, and to do worse than the heathen...

Psalm 12:8 The wicked walk on every side, when the vilest men are exalted.

Proverbs 29:12 If a ruler listen to lies, all his servants are wicked.

Hosea 5:11 Ephraim is oppressed and broken in judgment, because he willingly walked after the commandment.

Revelation 2:20 Notwithstanding I have a few things against you, because you suffer that woman Jezebel, which calls herself a prophetess...

more evil.

Ezekiel 16:47,51,52 Yet have you not walked after their ways, nor done after their abominations: but, as if that were a very little thing...

Cross References
2 Kings 21:10
And the LORD said by his servants the prophets,

Proverbs 29:12
If a ruler listens to falsehood, all his officials will be wicked.

Ezekiel 5:7
Therefore thus says the Lord GOD: Because you are more turbulent than the nations that are all around you, and have not walked in my statutes or obeyed my rules, and have not even acted according to the rules of the nations that are all around you,

Ezekiel 16:47
Not only did you walk in their ways and do according to their abominations; within a very little time you were more corrupt than they in all your ways.

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