Vincent's Word Studies
Put them in mind to be subject to principalities and powers, to obey magistrates, to be ready to every good work,
Put them in mind (ὑπομίμνησκε ἐξουσίαις)
Principalities and powers (ἀρχαῖς ἐξουσίαις)
Omit and. Principalities which are authorities. Ἁρχή beginning equals that which begins: the leader, principality. See on Colossians 1:16; see on Jde 1:6; see on Acts 10:11. Only here in Pastorals. Ἑξουσία right, authority. See on Mark 2:10; see on John 1:12; see on Colossians 1:16. Only here in Pastorals. For the combination principalities and powers, see on Luke 20:20.
To obey magistrates (πειθαρχεῖν)
Ready to every good work (πρὸς πᾶν ἔργον ἀγαθὸν ἑτοίμους εἶναι)
The phrase N.T.o. Ἑτοίμος ready, only here in Pastorals. Comp. ἑτοιμασία readiness or preparation, Ephesians 6:15 (note).
To speak evil of no man, to be no brawlers, but gentle, shewing all meekness unto all men.
No brawlers (ἀμάχους)
Better as Rev., not to be contentious. See on 1 Timothy 3:3. Pasto.
For we ourselves also were sometimes foolish, disobedient, deceived, serving divers lusts and pleasures, living in malice and envy, hateful, and hating one another.
Divers - pleasures (ἡδοναῖς ποικίλαις)
Only here in Pastorals. See on James 1:21. In N.T. κακία is a special form of vice, not viciousness in general, as Cicero, Tusc. iv. 15, who explains by "vitiositas, a viciousness which includes all vices." Calvin, on Ephesians 4:32, defines as " a viciousness of mind opposed to humanity and fairness, and commonly styled malignity." The homily ascribed to Clement of Rome, describes κακία as the forerunner (προοδοίπορον) of our sins (x). Malice is a correct translation.
But after that the kindness and love of God our Saviour toward man appeared,
Love is too vague. It is love toward men; comp. Titus 3:2. Only here and Acts 28:2 : φιλανθρώπως kindly, Acts 27:3 (note). While it cannot be asserted that the heretical characteristics noted in the Pastoral Epistles point collectively to any specific form of error, it is true, nevertheless, that certain characteristics of the economy of grace are emphasized, which are directly opposed to Gnostic ideas. Thus the exhortation that supplications be made for all men, supported by the statement that God wills that all men should be saved and come to the knowledge of the truth (1 Timothy 2:1, 1 Timothy 2:4), is in the teeth of the Gnostic distinction between men of spirit and men of matter, and of the Gnostic principle that the knowledge (ἐπίγνωσις) of truth was only for a limited, intellectual class. To the same effect is the frequent recurrence of all, for all, in connection with the saving and enlightening gifts of God (1 Timothy 2:6; 1 Timothy 4:10; 1 Timothy 6:13; Titus 2:11). So here: not only has the saving grace of God appeared unto all (Titus 2:11), but it has revealed itself as kindness and love to man as man.
Not by works of righteousness which we have done, but according to his mercy he saved us, by the washing of regeneration, and renewing of the Holy Ghost;
Not by works of righteousness which we have done (οὐκ ἐξ ἔργων τῶν ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ ἃ ἐποιήσαμεν)
Lit. not by works, those namely in righteousness, which we did. The thought is entirely Pauline. Ἑξ ἔργων strictly, out of, in consequence of works. Εν δικαιοσύνῃ in the sphere of righteousness; as legally righteous men. Comp. Ephesians 2:9. We did emphatic. Comp. Romans 10:5; Galatians 3:10, Galatians 3:12; Galatians 5:3.
According to his mercy (κατὰ τὸ αὐτοῦ ἔλεος)
By the washing of regeneration (διὰ λουτροῦ παλινγενεσίας)
Λουτρόν only here and Ephesians 5:26. It does not mean the act of bathing, but the bath, the laver. Παλινγενεσία only here and Matthew 19:28, where it is used of the final restoration of all things. The phrase laver of regeneration distinctly refers to baptism, in connection with which and through which as a medium regeneration is conceived as taking place. Comp. Romans 6:3-5. It is true that nothing is said of faith; but baptism implies faith on the part of its recipient. It has no regenerating effect apart from faith; and the renewing of the Holy Spirit is not bestowed if faith be wanting.
Only here and Romans 12:2. Comp. 2 Corinthians 5:7. Paul has ἀνακαινοῦν to renew, 2 Corinthians 4:16; Colossians 3:10 : ἀνακαίνωσις renewing, Romans 12:2. Ἁνακαινίζειν to renew, only Hebrews 6:6. The connection of the genitive is disputed. Some make it dependent on λουτροῦ bath, so that the bath of baptism is conceived as implying regeneration and renewing of the Holy Spirit. Others construe with renewing only, ἀνακαινώσεως being dependent on διὰ; through the laver of regeneration and (through) the renewing, etc. The former seems the more probable. The phrase renewing of the Holy Spirit only here. In N.T. the Spirit or the Holy Spirit is joined in the genitive with the following words: comfort, joy, power, love, demonstration, manifestation, earnest, ministration, fellowship, promise, fruit, unity, sword, sanctification.
Which he shed on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Saviour;
Or poured forth. Only here in Pastorals. Most frequent in Revelation. The pouring out of the Spirit is an O.T. metaphor. See Joel 3:1, Joel 3:2, cit. in Acts 2:17, Acts 2:18; Zechariah 12:10. In Paul the verb occurs but once, of shedding blood, Romans 3:15, cit.
That being justified by his grace, we should be made heirs according to the hope of eternal life.
Being justified (δικαιωθέντες)
In Pastorals only here and 1 Timothy 3:16 (note). See Introd. VI. Justification is conceived as taking place before the outpouring of the Spirit.
By his grace (τῇ ἐκείνου χάριτι)
We should be made heirs (κληρονόμοι γενηθῶμεν)
Κληρονόμος heir only here in Pastorals. A favorite idea of Paul. See Romans 4:13; Romans 8:17; Galatians 3:29. Heirship of eternal life is the result of justification. So, clearly, Romans 5. It is attested and confirmed by the Holy Spirit. 2 Corinthians 5:5; Ephesians 1:14.
According to the hope of eternal life (κατ' ἐλπίδα ζωῆς αἰωνίου)
Const. of eternal life with heirs, and rend. heirs of eternal life according to hope. Comp. Romans 4:18; Romans 5:2; Romans 8:24; Galatians 5:5; Colossians 1:5, Colossians 1:27; Titus 1:2; 1 Peter 1:3; 1 John 3:2, 1 John 3:3.
This is a faithful saying, and these things I will that thou affirm constantly, that they which have believed in God might be careful to maintain good works. These things are good and profitable unto men.
Affirm constantly (διαβεβαιοῦσθαι)
Pasto. See on 1 Timothy 1:7. Constantly, not continually, but uniformly and consistently. So Book of Common Prayer, "Collect for Saint John Baptist's Day," "and after his example constantly speak the truth." Rend. affirm steadfastly.
Might be careful (φροντίζωσιν)
N.T.o. Quite often in lxx. Frequent in Class. To think or consider; hence to take careful thought, ponder, be anxious about.
To maintain (προΐ̀στασθαι)
But avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions, and strivings about the law; for they are unprofitable and vain.
Foolish questions, etc.
Strivings about the law (μάχας νομικὰς)
The phrase N.T.o. Comp. 1 Timothy 1:7. Νομικός mostly in Luke. Everywhere except here a lawyer, with the article or τὶς.
Only here and Hebrews 7:18.
Only here in Pastorals. Twice in Paul, 1 Corinthians 3:20, cit.; 1 Corinthians 15:17 (note). Very frequent in lxx. The sense is aimless or resultless, as μάταιος εὐχή a prayer which cannot obtain fulfilment. The questions, genealogies, etc., lead to no attainment or advancement in godliness. Comp. ματαιολογία jangling, 1 Timothy 1:6; ματαιολόγοι vain talkers, 1 Timothy 1:10; ματαιότης vanity, Romans 8:20; Ephesians 4:17; ἐματαιώθησαν were made vain, Romans 1:21; μάτην in vain, Matthew 15:9.
A man that is an heretick after the first and second admonition reject;
A man that is an heretic (αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρωπον)
Ἁιρετικός heretical, N.T.o. For αἵρεσις heresy see on 1 Peter 2:1.
Knowing that he that is such is subverted, and sinneth, being condemned of himself.
Is subverted (ἐξέστραπται)
N.T.o. More than turned away from the right path: rather, turned inside out. Comp. lxx, Deuteronomy 32:20.
Condemned of himself (αὐτοκατάκριτος)
Better as Rev., self-condemned. N.T.o. olxx, oClass.
When I shall send Artemas unto thee, or Tychicus, be diligent to come unto me to Nicopolis: for I have determined there to winter.
There were several cities of this name, one in Cilicia, one in Thrace, and one in Epirus. It is uncertain which one is meant here.
To winter (παραχειμάσαι)
Bring Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their journey diligently, that nothing be wanting unto them.
And let ours also learn to maintain good works for necessary uses, that they be not unfruitful.
Our brethren in Crete.
For necessary uses (εἰς τὰς ἀναγκαίας χρείας)
The phrase N.T.o. With reference to whatever occasion may demand them.
All that are with me salute thee. Greet them that love us in the faith. Grace be with you all. Amen.