The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)Genesis 13:1. Here also his father sojourns. The life of Isaac is now closed. Joseph must have been, at the time of Jacob's return, in his thirteenth year, and therefore, his father in his hundred and fourth. Isaac was consequently in his hundred and sixty-third year. He survived the return of Jacob to Hebron about seventeen years, and the sale of Joseph his grandson about thirteen. "Esau and Jacob his sons buried him." Hence, we learn that Esau and Jacob continued to be on brotherly terms from the day of their meeting at the ford of Jabbok.
This chapter closes the ninth of the pieces or documents marked off by the phrase "these are the generations." Its opening event was the birth of Isaac Genesis 25:19, which took place in the hundreth year of Abraham, and therefore, seventy-five years before his death recorded in the seventh document. As the seventh purports to be the generations of Terah Genesis 11:27 and relates to Abraham who was his offspring, so the present document, containing the generations of Isaac, refers chiefly to the sons of Isaac, and especially to Jacob, as the heir of promise. Isaac as a son learned obedience to his father in that great typical event of his life, in which he was laid on the altar, and figuratively sacrificed in the ram which was his substitute. This was the great significant passage in his life, after which he retires into comparative tranquillity.
- Section XII - Jacob
- The History of Esau
2. <אהלבמה 'ohŏlı̂ybâmâh, Oholibamah, "tent of the high place." ענה ‛ǎnâh, 'Anah, "answering." צבעון tsı̂b‛ôn, Tsib'on, "dyer, colored."
4. אליפז 'ělı̂yphaz, Eliphaz, "God of strength." רעוּאל re‛û'êl Re'uel, "friend of God."
5. יעוּשׁ ye‛ûsh, Je'ush, "haste." יעלם ya‛lâm, Ja'lam, "hiding." קרח qôrach Qorach, "ice."
11. תימן têymân, Teman, "right-hand man." אומר 'ômār, Omar, "eloquent." צפו tsephô, Tsepho, "watch." געתם ga‛tâm Ga'tam, "touch." קנז qenaz Qenaz, "hunting."
12. תמנע tı̂mnâ( Timna', "restraint." עמלק ‛ǎmâlêq, 'Amaleq, "licking up, laboring."
13. נחת nachath, Nachath, "going down, rest." זרח zerach, Zerach, "rising" (of light). שׁמח shammâh, Shammah, "wasting." מזה mı̂zzâh, Mizzah, "fear, sprinkling."
20. ליטן lôṭân, Lotan, "covering, veiled." שׁובל shôbâl, Shobal, "flowing, a shoot."
21. דשׁון dı̂yshôn, Dishon, "a kind of gazelle, fat." אצר 'etser, Etser, "store." דישׁן dı̂yshân, Dishan, "threshing."
22. חרי chôrı̂y, Chori, "troglodyte." הימם hēmām, Hemam, "noise, commotion."
23. עלון ‛alvân, 'Alvan, "lofty." מנחת mânachath, Manachath, "rest." עיבל ‛êybâl, 'Ebal, "stripped of leaves." שׁפו shephô, Shepho, "bare." אונם 'ônâm, Onam, "strong."The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun:
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)Verses 23-26. - The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun (cf. Genesis 29:32-35; Genesis 30:18-20; Genesis 46:8-15; Exodus 1:2, 3). The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin (Cf. Genesis 30:22-24; Genesis 35:18; Genesis 46:19). And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali (cf. Genesis 30:4-8). And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher (cf. Genesis 30:9-13): these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padan-aram. All except Benjamin were born there. Either this is an instance of the summary style of Scripture in which minute verbal accuracy is not always preserved (Inglis), or the whole period of Jacob s pilgrimage to Mesopotamia and back is intended by his residence in Padan-aram (Kalisch). Genesis 35:1). For the word שׁב does not enjoin a permanent abode; but, when taken in connection with what follows, "make there an altar," it merely directs him to stay there and perform his vow. As they were travelling forward, Rachel was taken in labour not far from Ephratah. הארץ כּברת is a space, answering probably to the Persian parassang, though the real meaning of כּברה is unknown. The birth was a difficult one. בּלדתּהּ תּקשׁ: she had difficulty in her labour (instead of Piel we find Hiphil in Genesis 35:17 with the same signification). The midwife comforted her by saying: "Fear not, for this also is to thee a son," - a wish expressed by her when Joseph was born (Genesis 30:24). But she expired; and as she was dying, she called him Been-oni, "son of my pain." Jacob, however, called him Ben-jamin, probably son of good fortune, according to the meaning of the word jamin sustained by the Arabic, to indicate that his pain at the loss of his favourite wife was compensated by the birth of this son, who now completed the number twelve. Other explanations are less simple. He buried Rachel on the road to Ephratah, or Ephrath (probably the fertile, from פּרה), i.e., Bethlehem (bread-house), by which name it is better known, though the origin of it is obscure. He also erected a monument over her grave (מצּבה, στήλη), on which the historian observes, "This is the pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day:" a remark which does not necessarily point to a post-Mosaic period, but which could easily have been made even 10 or 20 years after its erection. For the fact that a grave-stone had been preserved upon the high road in a foreign land, the inhabitants of which had no interest whatever in it, might appear worthy of notice even though only a single decennary had passed away.
(Note: But even if this Mazzebah was really preserved till the conquest of Canaan by the Israelites, i.e., more than 450 years, and the remark referred to that time, it might be an interpolation by a later hand. The grave was certainly a well-known spot in Samuel's time (1 Samuel 10:2); but a monumentum ubi Rachel posita est uxor Jacob is first mentioned again by the Bordeaux pilgrims of a.d. 333 and Jerome. The Kubbet Rahil (Rachel's grave), which is now shown about half an hour's journey to the north of Bethlehem, to the right of the road from Jerusalem to Hebron, is merely "an ordinary Muslim wely, or tomb of a holy person, a small square building of stone with a dome, and within it a tomb in the ordinary Mohammedan form" (Rob. Pal. 1, p. 322). It has been recently enlarged by a square court with high walls and arches on the eastern side (Rob. Bibl. Researches. p. 357). Now although this grave is not ancient, the correctness of the tradition, which fixes upon this as the site of Rachel's grave, cannot on the whole be disputed. At any rate, the reasons assigned to the contrary by Thenius, Kurtz, and others are not conclusive.)
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