2 Kings 8:23
And the rest of the acts of Joram, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(23) The rest of the acts.—Or, history. (See especially 2Chronicles 21:11-19, and the Notes there.)

8:16-24 A general idea is given of Jehoram's badness. His father, no doubt, had him taught the true knowledge of the Lord, but did ill to marry him to the daughter of Ahab; no good could come of union with an idolatrous family.Libnah revolted - Libnah being toward the southwest of Palestine Joshua 15:42, its revolt cannot well have had any direct connection with that of Edom. It had been the capital of a small Canaanite state under a separate king before its conquest by Joshua Jos 10:30; Joshua 12:15, and may perhaps always have retained a considerable Canaanite population. Or its loss may have been connected with the attacks made by the Philistines on Jehoram's territories 2 Chronicles 21:16-17. 18. daughter of Ahab—Athaliah, through whose influence Jehoram introduced the worship of Baal and many other evils into the kingdom of Judah (see 2Ch 21:2-20). This apostasy would have led to the total extinction of the royal family in that kingdom, had it not been for the divine promise to David (2Sa 7:16). A national chastisement, however, was inflicted on Judah by the revolt of Edom, which, being hitherto governed by a tributary ruler (2Ki 3:9; 1Ki 22:47), erected the standard of independence (2Ch 21:9). of which See Poole "1 Kings 14:19". And the rest of the acts of Joram, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? Not in the canonical book of Chronicles, though some of his acts are recorded there, see 2 Chronicles 21:1 but in the annals of the kings of Judah, written by persons appointed for that purpose. And the rest of the acts of Joram, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah?
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
23. the rest of the acts of Joram] In Chronicles we are told of the high places which he made in the mountains of Judah, and how he compelled the people to worship there. In consequence of this a writing is said to have come to him from Elijah the prophet rebuking him for his evil doing, and telling of the painful disease by which he should die. We read there also of revolts against Joram by the Philistines and the Arabians, and that by the latter all the king’s family were cut off except his youngest son. Moreover that when he died the people made no burning for him, as had been done at the death of his ancestors, and that ‘he departed without being desired’, i.e. none missed him or lamented for him when he died. Also that though buried in the city of David, his body was not put into the sepulchres of the kings. This last statement is no contradiction of what is contained in verse 24 of this chapter.Verse 23. - And the rest of the sets of Joram, and all that he did, are they not written in the book of the chronicles of the kings of Judah? Some of these acts are recorded in our present Second Book of Chronicles; e.g. his execution of his brothers and of many nobles (2 Chronicles 21:4); his erection of high places (2 Chronicles 21:11); his persecution of the followers of Jehovah (2 Chronicles 21:11); his reception of a writing from Elisha, which, however, had no effect upon his conduct (2 Chronicles 21:12-15); his war with the Philistines (2 Chronicles 21:16) and with the Arabs (2 Chronicles 21:16); his loss of all his sons but one during his lifetime; his long illness, and his painful death (2 Chronicles 21:18, 19). But the 'Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah' was a work on a larger scale than the extant Book of Chronicles, and probably went into much greater detail. Reign of Joram of Judah (cf. 2 Chronicles 21:2-20). - Joram became king in the fifth year of Joram of Israel, while Jehoshaphat his father was (still) king, the latter handing over the government to him two years before his death (see at 2 Kings 1:17), and reigned eight years, namely, two years to the death of Jehoshaphat and six years afterwards.

(Note: The words יהוּדה מלך ויהושׁפט have been improperly omitted by the Arabic and Syriac, and by Luther, Dathe, and De Wette from their translations; whilst Schulz, Maurer, Thenius, and others pronounce it a gloss. The genuineness of the words is attested by the lxx (the Edit. Complut. being alone in omitting them) and by the Chaldee: and the rejection of them is just as arbitrary as the interpolation of מת, which is proposed by Kimchi and Ewald ("when Jehoshaphat was dead"). Compare J. Meyer, annotatt. ad Seder Olam, p. 916f.)

The Chethb שׁנה שׁמנה is not to be altered, since the rule that the numbers two to ten take the noun in the plural is not without exception (cf. Ewald, 287, i.).

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