2 Kings 23:31
Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
23:31-37 After Josiah was laid in his grave, one trouble came on another, till, in twenty-two years, Jerusalem was destroyed. The wicked perished in great numbers, the remnant were purified, and Josiah's reformation had raised up some to join the few who were the precious seed of their future church and nation. A little time, and slender abilities, often suffice to undo the good which pious men have, for a course of years, been labouring to effect. But, blessed be God, the good work which he begins by his regenerating Spirit, cannot be done away, but withstands all changes and temptations.Dead - It appears from a comparison of this passage with 2 Chronicles marginal reference) that Josiah was not actually killed in the battle.

Jehoahaz - Or Shallum (the marginal note). He may have taken the name of Jehoahaz ("the Lord possesses") on his accession. He was not the eldest son of Josiah (see 2 Kings 23:36 note). The mention of "anointing" here favors the view that there was some irregularity in the succession (see 1 Kings 1:34 note).

29. In his days Pharaoh-nechoh—(See 2Ch 35:20-27). No text from Poole on this verse.

Jehoahaz was twenty three years old when he began to reign,.... Who seems to be the same with Shallum, Jeremiah 22:11.

and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; a short reign, being deposed by the king of Egypt, as after related:

and his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah; a city in the tribe of Judah, Joshua 10:29.

Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign; and he reigned three months in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
31–35. Reign of Jehoahaz. He is put down by the king of Egypt. Jehoiakim is made king, and becomes tributary to Egypt (2 Chronicles 36:1-4)

31. his mother’s name was Hamutal] So he was by the same mother as well as by the same father as Zedekiah. See 2 Kings 24:18. On Libnah, see above 2 Kings 8:22.

Verses 31-33. - SHORT REIGN OF JEHOAHAZ. Pharaoh-Nechoh, having defeated Josiah, left Jerusalem and Judaea behind him, while he pressed forward on his original enterprise (see ver. 29) into Northern Syria and the district about Carehemish, or the tract north-east of Aleppo. It was three months before he had completed his conquests in these quarters, and, having arranged matters to his satisfaction, set out on his return to Egypt. During these three months Jehoahaz bore rule at Jerusalem (ver. 31), and "did evil in the sight of the Lord" (ver. 32). Ezekiel compares him to "a young lion," which "learned to catch the prey, and devoured men" (Ezekiel 19:3). It may be suspected that he re-established the idolatries which Josiah had put down; but this is uncertain. Pharaoh-Nechoh, on his return from Carehemish, learning what the Jews had done, sent envoys to Jerusalem, and summoned Jehoahaz to his presence at Riblah, in the territory of Hamath (ver. 33; comp. Josephus, 'Ant. Jud.,' 10:5. § 2). Je-hoahaz obeyed the summons; and Nechoh, having obtained possession of his person, "put him in bands," and carried him off to Egypt, where he died (ver. 34; comp. Jeremiah 22:10-12; Josephus, l.s.c.) Verse 31. - Jehoahaz was twenty and three years old when he began to reign. He was, therefore, younger than his brother Eliakim, who, three months later, was "twenty-five years old" (ver. 36). His original name seems to have been "Shallum," as above noticed (see the comment on ver. 30). Probably he changed it to "Jehoahaz" ("Possession of Jehovah") on his accession. And he reigned three months in Jerusalem - three months and tern days, according to Josephus - and his mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. The father of Hamutal was not, therefore, Jeremiah the prophet, who was a native of Anathoth (see Jeremiah 1:1). 2 Kings 23:31Reign of Jehoahaz (cf. 2 Chronicles 36:1-4). - Jehoahaz, called significantly by Jeremiah (Jeremiah 22:11) Shallum, i.e., "to whom it is requited," reigned only three months, and did evil in the eyes of the Lord as all his fathers had done. The people (or the popular party), who had preferred him to his elder brother, had apparently set great hopes upon him, as we may judge from Jer 22:10-12, and seem to have expected that his strength and energy would serve to avert the danger which threatened the kingdom on the part of Necho. Ezekiel (Ezekiel 19:3) compares him to a young lion which learned to catch the prey and devoured men, but, as soon as the nations heard of him, was taken in their pit and led by nose-rings to Egypt, and thus attributes to him the character of a tyrant disposed to acts of violence; and Josephus accordingly (Ant. x. 5, 2) describes him as ἀσεβὴς καὶ μιαρὸς τὸν τρόπον.
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