And he inquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)And he enquired of the Lord for him.—This is, however, by no means certain (see below); nothing was said about the Urim and Thummim being brought out and questioned by the high priest on the occasion of David’s visit. It is possible that Doeg was misled here by the fact of the high priest’s going into the sanctuary, where the ephod was, to fetch the sword of Goliath for David. This famous sword was laid up, we know, behind the ephod.1 Samuel 22:10. He inquired of the Lord for him — Some think Doeg slandered Ahimelech in this, because we read nothing of it in the foregoing chapter; and David in the Psalms speaks of his false tongue. But whether or not, he was guilty of great wickedness in concealing part of the truth, which in this case he ought to have declared, for Ahimelech’s just defence; namely, the artifice whereby David had deceived him, making him believe that he was going on the king’s business; so that the service which Ahimelech did to David was designed in honour of Saul. And gave him victuals, &c. — Very innocently, as Doeg very well knew. But he represented these as acts whereby Ahimelech had aided and abetted David in a conspiracy; which are the lies that David lays to his charge, nothing being further from the truth.He inquired of the Lord for him: this is not recorded 1Sa 21, and therefore some think that Doeg, to curry favour with Saul, feigned this; for it is certain David chargeth him with the sin of lying, Psalm 52:3, though it is not improbable that he told other lies also, not here expressed; and withal, he was guilty of concealing part of the truth, which in this case he was also obliged to declare for Ahimelech’s just defence, to wit, the cunning pretence and artifice whereby David circumvented Ahimelech. Others think this was true, because Ahimelech seems to confess it, 1 Samuel 22:15, though that may be spoken by way of concession. If it were so as Doeg declares, this was no new thing. Then he might add that it was not so, though this be not here mentioned; for it is evident that all his answer or apology is not here expressed; for here is not a word of the victuals or sword which he gave him. Psalm 52:3; but it is not at all improbable that David should desire him to inquire of the Lord for him, and that he did; and he seems to acknowledge it, 1 Samuel 22:15; but according to the Jewish writers Doeg meant by this to prove a charge of treason both against David and Ahimelech; that the former made himself king, and the latter owned him to be so, since inquiry by Urim and Thummim was not made for a private person, but for a king (e):
and gave him victuals; hallowed bread, loaves of shewbread, which none but priests might eat of; such was his kindness to him:
and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine; which David took from him, and slew him with it. All this was true, but then he acted the deceitful part, with which he is charged in the above psalms, in not declaring how David had imposed upon the priest, by pretending he was sent in haste on the king's business; which was the reason he was so ill provided with servants, food, and armour; which if Doeg had reported faithfully, as he ought to have done, would have saved the credit and life of the priest, and of his family.And he inquired of the LORD for him, and gave him victuals, and gave him the sword of Goliath the Philistine.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)10. he inquired of the Lord for him] See on 1 Samuel 10:23. This, though not expressly mentioned in ch. 21, was probably the chief object of David’s visit, and Ahimelech does not disclaim the charge (1 Samuel 22:15).Deuteronomy 34:1), and which could easily be reached from the country round Bethlehem, by crossing the Jordan near the point where it entered the Dead Sea. As David came to the king of Moab, the Moabites had probably taken possession of the most southerly portion of the eastern lands of the Israelites; we may also infer this from the fact that, according to 1 Samuel 14:47, Saul had also made war upon Moab, for Mizpeh Moab is hardly to be sought for in the actual land of the Moabites, on the south side of the Arnon (Mojeb). אתּכם ... יצא־נא, "May my father and my mother go out with you." The construction of יצא with את is a pregnant one: to go out of their home and stay with you (Moabites). "Till I know what God will do to me." Being well assured of the justice of his cause, as contrasted with the insane persecutions of Saul, David confidently hoped that God would bring his flight to an end. His parents remained with the king of Moab as long as David was בּמּצוּדה, i.e., upon the mount height, or citadel. This can only refer to the place of refuge which David had found at Mizpeh Moab. For it is perfectly clear from 1 Samuel 22:5, where the prophet Gad calls upon David not to remain any longer בּמּצוּדה, but to return to the land of Judah, that the expression cannot refer either to the cave Adullam, or to any other place of refuge in the neighbourhood of Bethlehem. The prophet Gad had probably come to David from Samuel's school of prophets; but whether he remained with David from that time forward to assist him with his counsel in his several undertakings, cannot be determined, on account of our want of information. In 1 Chronicles 21:9 he is called David's seer. In the last year of David's reign he announced to him the punishment which would fall upon him from God on account of his sin in numbering the people (2 Samuel 24:11.); and according to 1 Chronicles 29:29 he also wrote the acts of David. In consequence of this admonition, David returned to Judah, and went into the wood Hareth, a woody region on the mountains of Judah, which is never mentioned again, and the situation of which is unknown. According to the counsels of God, David was not to seek for refuge outside the land; not only that he might not be estranged from his fatherland and the people of Israel, which would have been opposed to his calling to be the king of Israel, but also that he might learn to trust entirely in the Lord as his only refuge and fortress.
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