Jump to: Hitchcock'sSmith'sISBEEaston'sConcordanceThesaurusGreekLibrarySubtopicsTerms
Hitchcock's Bible Names Dictionary

prince of joy

Smith's Bible Dictionary

a city of Asia Minor and capital of Lydia, situated about two miles to the south of the river Hermus, just below the range of Tmolus, on a spur of which its acropolis was built. It was 60 miles northeast of Smyrna. It was the ancient residence of the kings of Lydia, among them Croesus, proverbial for his immense wealth. Cyrus is said to have taken ,000,000 worth of treasure form the city when he captured it, B.C. 548. Sardis was in very early times, both from the extremely fertile character of the neighboring region and from its convenient position, a commercial mart of importance. The art of dyeing wool is said to have been invented there. In the year 214 B.C. it was taken and sacked by the army of Antiochus the Great. Afterward it passed under the dominion of the kings of Pergamos. Its productive soil must always have continued a source of wealth; but its importance as a central mart appears to have diminished from the time of the invasion of Asia by Alexander. The massive temple of Cybele still bears witness in its fragmentary remains to the wealth and architectural skill of the people that raised it. On the north side of the acropolis, overlooking the valley of the Hermus, is a theatre near 400 feet in diameter, attached to a stadium of about 1000. There are still considerable remains of the ancient city at Sert-Kalessi . Travellers describe the appearance of the locality as that of complete solitude. The only passage in which it is mentioned in the Bible is (Revelation 3:1-6)

Easton's Bible Dictionary
The metropolis of Lydia in Asia Minor. It stood on the river Pactolus, at the foot of mount Tmolus. Here was one of the seven Asiatic churches (Revelation 3:1-6). It is now a ruin called Sert-Kalessi.
International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

sar'-dis (Sardeis): Sardis is of special interest to the student of Herodotus and Xenophon, for there Artaphernes, the brother of Darius, lived, and from there Xerxes invaded Greece and Cyrus marched against his brother Artaxerxes; it is also of interest to the student of early Christian history as the home of one of the Seven Churches of Re (1:11; 3:1;). It was moreover one of the oldest and most important cities of Asia Minor, and until 549 B.C., the capital of the kingdom of Lydia. It stood on the northern slope of Mt. Tmolus; its acropolis occupied one of the spurs of the mountain. At the base flowed the river Pactolus which served as a moat, rendering the city practically impregnable. Through the failure to watch, however, the acropolis had been successfully scaled in 549 B.C. by a Median soldier, and in 218 by a Cretan (compare Revelation 3:2, 3). Because of its strength during the Persian period, the satraps here made their homes. However, the city was burned by the Ionians in 501 B.C., but it was quickly rebuilt and regained its importance. In 334 B.C. it surrendered to Alexander the Great who gave it independence, but its period of independence was brief, for 12 years later in 322 B.C. it was taken by Antigonus. In 301 B.C., it fell into the possession of the Seleucidan kings who made it the residence of their governor. It became free again in 190 B.C., when it formed a part of the empire of Pergamos, and later of the Roman province of Asia. In 17 A.D., when it was destroyed by an earthquake, the Roman emperor Tiberius remitted the taxes of the people and rebuilt the city, and in his honor the citizens of that and of neighboring towns erected a large monument, but Sardis never recovered its former importance (compare Revelation 3:12). Again in 295 A.D., after the Roman province of Asia was broken up, Sardis became the capital of Lydia, and during the early Christian age it was the home of a bishop. The city continued to flourish until 1402, when it was so completely destroyed by Tamerlane that it was never rebuilt. Among the ruins there now stands a small village called Sert, a corruption of its ancient name. The ruins may be reached by rail from Smyrna, on the way to Philadelphia.

The ancient city was noted for its fruits and wool, and for its temple of the goddess Cybele, whose worship resembled that of Diana of Ephesus. Its wealth was also partly due to the gold which was found in the sand of the river Pactolus, and it was here that gold and silver coins were first struck. During the Roman period its coins formed a beautiful series, and are found in abundance by the peasants who till the surrounding fields. The ruins of the buildings which stood at the base of the hill have now been nearly buried by the dirt washed down from above. The hill upon which the acropolis stood measures 950 ft. high: the triple walls still surround it. The more imposing of the ruins are on the lower slope of the hill, and among them the temple of Cybele is the most interesting, yet only two of its many stone columns are still standing. Equally imposing is the necropolis of the city, which is at a distance of two hours' ride from Sert, South of the Gygaean lake. The modern name of the necropolis is Bin Tepe or Thousand Mounds, because of the large group of great mounds in which the kings and nobles were buried. Many of the mounds were long ago excavated and plundered.

We quote the following from the Missionary Herald (Boston, Massachusetts, August, 1911, pp. 361-62):

Dr. C. C. Tracy, of Marsovan, has made a visit to ancient Sardis and observed the work of his countryman, Professor Butler, of Princeton University, who is uncovering the ruins of that famous city of the past. Already rich "finds" have been made; among them portions of a temple of Artemis, indicating a building of the same stupendous character as those at Ephesus and Baalbec, and a necropolis from whose tombs were unearthed three thousand relics, including utensils, ornaments of gold and precious stones, mirrors, etc. What chiefly impressed Dr. Tracy was the significance of those "Seven Churches of Asia," of which Sardis held one. "When I think of the myriads of various nationality and advanced civilization for whose evangelization these churches were responsible, the messages to the Christian communities occupying the splendid strategic centers fill me with awe. While established amid the splendors of civilization, they were set as candlesticks in the midst of gross spiritual darkness. Did they fulfill their mission?"

One of Dr. Butler's recoveries is the marble throne of the Bishop of Sardis; looking upon it the message to Sardis recurs to mind. A fact of current history quickened the visitor's appreciation of the word to "the angel" of that church. "Yonder among the mountains overhanging Sardis there is a robber gang led by the notorious Chakirjali. He rules in the mountains; no government force can take him. Again and again he swoops down like an eagle out of the sky, in one quarter of the region or another. From time immemorial these mountains have been the haunts of robbers; very likely it was so when Re was written, `I will come upon thee as a thief.' In each case the message was addressed to `the angel of the church.' Over every church in the world there is a spirit hovering, as it were-a spirit representing that church and by whose name it can be addressed. The messages are as vital as they were at the first. `He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches.' "

E. J. Banks

4554. Sardeis -- Sardis, the chief city of Lydia
... Sardis, the chief city of Lydia. Part of Speech: Noun, Feminine Transliteration:
Sardeis Phonetic Spelling: (sar'-dice) Short Definition: Sardis Definition ...
// - 6k

... SARDIS. We have had four references to Israel's history in the Old Testament,
and as four is the number connected with the earth, so ...
// on revelation/sardis.htm

Sardis. Rev 3:1-6
... Hymn 138 Sardis. Rev 3:1-6. William Cowper 7,6,7,6,7,7,7,6. Sardis. Rev 3:1-6.
"Write to Sardis, saith the Lord,. And write what He declares; ...
// hymns/hymn 138 sardis rev 3 1-6.htm

I Know Thy Works
... XXX I Know thy Works. To the angel of the church in Ephesus"in Thyatira"in
Sardis"in Philadelphia"in Laodicea write: I know thy works.' [2] "Rev.2-3 ...
// for god/xxx i know thy works.htm

Melito, the Philosopher.
... [ad160-170-177.] Melito [3540] may have been the immediate successor of the "angel"
(or "apostle") of the church of Sardis, to whom our Great High Priest ...
// decretals/melito the philosopher.htm

The Conquest of Lydia.
... crossing the Halys."Advance of Cyrus."Preparations for battle."Great battle at
Pteria."Undecisive result."Croesus returns to Sardis."Cyrus follows ...
// the great/chapter vii the conquest of.htm

Melito and the Circumstances which He Records.
... 1. In those days also Melito, [1276] bishop of the parish in Sardis, and Apolinarius,
[1277] bishop of Hierapolis, enjoyed great distinction. ...
/.../pamphilius/church history/chapter xxvi melito and the circumstances.htm

A Solemn Warning for all Churches
... "Thou hast a few names even in Sardis which have not defiled their garments; and
they shall walk with me in white; for they are worthy.""Revelation 3:4. ...
/.../spurgeon/spurgeons sermons volume 2 1856/a solemn warning for all.htm

The Provinces.
... Death of Intaphernes."The provinces."The governors."Their independence."Power of
the governors."Oretes, governor of Sardis."Conversation between ...
// the great/chapter v the provinces.htm

The Story of Histiaeus.
... Darius then proceeded to Sardis, which was the most powerful and wealthy
of his capitals in that quarter of the world. At Sardis ...
// the great/chapter x the story of.htm

The Conquest of Babylon.
... He spent some time, therefore, in organizing and arranging, at Sardis, the affairs
of the new government which he was to substitute for that of Croesus there. ...
/...// the great/chapter viii the conquest of.htm

Sardis (3 Occurrences)
... Here was one of the seven Asiatic churches (Revelation 3:1-6). It is now a ruin
called Sert-Kalessi. Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia. SARDIS. ...
/s/sardis.htm - 13k

Thyatira (4 Occurrences)
... It stood on none of the Greek trade routes, but upon the lesser road between Pergamos
and Sardis, and derived its wealth from the Lycus valley in which it ...
/t/thyatira.htm - 12k

Philadelphia (2 Occurrences)
... Easton's Bible Dictionary Brotherly love, a city of Lydia in Asia Minor,
about 25 miles south-east of Sardis. It was the seat of ...
/p/philadelphia.htm - 10k

Sepharad (1 Occurrence)
... because the rabbis call Germany Ashkenaz. Others identify it with Sardis,
the capital of Lydia. The Latin father Jerome regarded ...
/s/sepharad.htm - 8k

Sardine (1 Occurrence)
... sardion, from a root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was
called "sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. ...
/s/sardine.htm - 7k

Seven (404 Occurrences)
... Revelation 1:11 saying, " What you see, write in a book and send to the seven
assemblies : to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to ...
/s/seven.htm - 42k

Livest (5 Occurrences)
... Revelation 3:1 And unto the angel of the church in Sardis write; These things saith
he that hath the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars; I know thy works ...
/l/livest.htm - 8k

Reputation (12 Occurrences)
... Revelation 3:1 "And to the angel of the assembly in Sardis write: "He who has the
seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars says these things: "I know your ...
/r/reputation.htm - 11k

Robes (124 Occurrences)
... Revelation 3:4 But you have some names in Sardis who have kept clean their
robes; and as a reward they will go in white with me. (BBE). ...
/r/robes.htm - 39k

Reality (13 Occurrences)
... (WEY). Revelation 3:1 "To the minister of the Church at Sardis write as follows:
"'This is what He who has the seven Spirits of God and the seven stars says. ...
/r/reality.htm - 11k

Bible Concordance
Sardis (3 Occurrences)

Revelation 1:11 saying, " What you see, write in a book and send to the seven assemblies : to Ephesus, Smyrna, Pergamum, Thyatira, Sardis, Philadelphia, and to Laodicea."

Revelation 3:1 "And to the angel of the assembly in Sardis write: "He who has the seven Spirits of God, and the seven stars says these things: "I know your works, that you have a reputation of being alive, but you are dead.

Revelation 3:4 Nevertheless you have a few names in Sardis that did not defile their garments. They will walk with me in white, for they are worthy.



Sardis: One of the Seven Congregations In

Related Terms

Thyatira (4 Occurrences)

Philadelphia (2 Occurrences)

Sepharad (1 Occurrence)

Sardine (1 Occurrence)

Seven (404 Occurrences)

Livest (5 Occurrences)

Reputation (12 Occurrences)

Robes (124 Occurrences)

Reality (13 Occurrences)

Defiled (119 Occurrences)

Doings (111 Occurrences)

Sardite (1 Occurrence)

Stars (64 Occurrences)

Supposed (19 Occurrences)

Seest (52 Occurrences)

Soiled (1 Occurrence)

Laodicea (6 Occurrences)

Dressed (77 Occurrences)

Follows (65 Occurrences)

Smyrna (2 Occurrences)

Pergamum (2 Occurrences)


Assemblies (48 Occurrences)

Holds (67 Occurrences)

Churches (39 Occurrences)

Garments (232 Occurrences)

Asia (22 Occurrences)

Nevertheless (153 Occurrences)


Defile (63 Occurrences)

Seem (115 Occurrences)

Minor (2 Occurrences)


Alive (166 Occurrences)

Zechariah (55 Occurrences)

Buying (12 Occurrences)

Introduction (3 Occurrences)

Clothes (208 Occurrences)

Worthy (92 Occurrences)


Reward (213 Occurrences)

Minister (150 Occurrences)

Deeds (309 Occurrences)

Hierapolis (1 Occurrence)

Ephesus (20 Occurrences)

Assembly (371 Occurrences)

Persecution (22 Occurrences)

Anaharath (1 Occurrence)

Walk (315 Occurrences)

Spirits (129 Occurrences)


Clean (298 Occurrences)

Revelation (52 Occurrences)

New (1850 Occurrences)

Angel (209 Occurrences)

Testament (13 Occurrences)

Names (133 Occurrences)

John (154 Occurrences)

Messenger (235 Occurrences)

Book (211 Occurrences)

Bible ConcordanceBible DictionaryBible EncyclopediaTopical BibleBible Thesuarus
Top of Page
Top of Page