1 Samuel 22:2
Parallel Verses
New International Version
All those who were in distress or in debt or discontented gathered around him, and he became their commander. About four hundred men were with him.

King James Bible
And every one that was in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one that was discontented, gathered themselves unto him; and he became a captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Darby Bible Translation
And every one in distress, and every one that was in debt, and every one of embittered spirit collected round him; and he became a captain over them; and there were with him about four hundred men.

World English Bible
Everyone who was in distress, and everyone who was in debt, and everyone who was discontented, gathered themselves to him; and he became captain over them: and there were with him about four hundred men.

Young's Literal Translation
and gather themselves unto him do every man in distress, and every man who hath an exactor, and every man bitter in soul, and he is over them for head, and there are with him about four hundred men.

1 Samuel 22:2 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

And every one that was in distress - debt - discontented - It is very possible that these several disaffected and exceptionable characters might at first have supposed that David, unjustly persecuted, would be glad to avail himself of their assistance that he might revenge himself upon Saul, and so they in the mean time might profit by plunder, etc. But if this were their design they were greatly disappointed, for David never made any improper use of them. They are never found plundering or murdering; on the contrary, they always appear under good discipline, and are only employed in services of a beneficent nature, and in defense of their country. Whatever they were before they came to David, we find that he succeeded in civilizing them, and making profitable to the state those who were before unprofitable. It is not necessary to strain the words of the original in order to prove that these were oppressed people, and not exceptionable characters, as some have done.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

distress

Judges 11:3 Then Jephthah fled from his brothers, and dwelled in the land of Tob: and there were gathered vain men to Jephthah...

Matthew 11:12,28 And from the days of John the Baptist until now the kingdom of heaven suffers violence, and the violent take it by force...

was in debt [heb] had a creditor

Matthew 18:25-34 But for as much as he had not to pay, his lord commanded him to be sold, and his wife, and children, and all that he had...

discontented [heb] bitter of soul

1 Samuel 1:10 And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed to the LORD, and wept sore.

1 Samuel 30:6 And David was greatly distressed; for the people spoke of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved...

Judges 18:25 And the children of Dan said to him, Let not your voice be heard among us, lest angry fellows run on you, and you lose your life...

2 Samuel 17:8 For, said Hushai, you know your father and his men, that they be mighty men, and they be chafed in their minds...

Proverbs 31:6 Give strong drink to him that is ready to perish, and wine to those that be of heavy hearts.

a captain

1 Samuel 9:16 To morrow about this time I will send you a man out of the land of Benjamin, and you shall anoint him to be captain over my people Israel...

1 Samuel 25:15,16 But the men were very good to us, and we were not hurt, neither missed we any thing, as long as we were conversant with them...

1 Samuel 30:22-24 Then answered all the wicked men and men of Belial, of those that went with David, and said, Because they went not with us...

2 Samuel 5:2 Also in time past, when Saul was king over us, you were he that led out and brought in Israel: and the LORD said to you...

2 Kings 20:5 Turn again, and tell Hezekiah the captain of my people, Thus said the LORD, the God of David your father, I have heard your prayer...

1 Chronicles 11:15-19 Now three of the thirty captains went down to the rock to David, into the cave of Adullam...

Psalm 72:12 For he shall deliver the needy when he cries; the poor also, and him that has no helper.

Psalm 72:13,14 He shall spare the poor and needy, and shall save the souls of the needy...

Matthew 9:12,13 But when Jesus heard that, he said to them, They that be whole need not a physician, but they that are sick...

Hebrews 2:10 For it became him, for whom are all things, and by whom are all things, in bringing many sons to glory...

Library
Covenanting Confers Obligation.
As it has been shown that all duty, and that alone, ought to be vowed to God in covenant, it is manifest that what is lawfully engaged to in swearing by the name of God is enjoined in the moral law, and, because of the authority of that law, ought to be performed as a duty. But it is now to be proved that what is promised to God by vow or oath, ought to be performed also because of the act of Covenanting. The performance of that exercise is commanded, and the same law which enjoins that the duties
John Cunningham—The Ordinance of Covenanting

Ramah. Ramathaim Zophim. Gibeah.
There was a certain Ramah, in the tribe of Benjamin, Joshua 18:25, and that within sight of Jerusalem, as it seems, Judges 19:13; where it is named with Gibeah:--and elsewhere, Hosea 5:8; which towns were not much distant. See 1 Samuel 22:6; "Saul sat in Gibeah, under a grove in Ramah." Here the Gemarists trifle: "Whence is it (say they) that Ramah is placed near Gibea? To hint to you, that the speech of Samuel of Ramah was the cause, why Saul remained two years and a half in Gibeah." They blindly
John Lightfoot—From the Talmud and Hebraica

Cross References
1 Samuel 22:3
From there David went to Mizpah in Moab and said to the king of Moab, "Would you let my father and mother come and stay with you until I learn what God will do for me?"

1 Samuel 23:13
So David and his men, about six hundred in number, left Keilah and kept moving from place to place. When Saul was told that David had escaped from Keilah, he did not go there.

1 Samuel 25:13
David said to his men, "Each of you strap on your sword!" So they did, and David strapped his on as well. About four hundred men went up with David, while two hundred stayed with the supplies.

2 Kings 4:1
The wife of a man from the company of the prophets cried out to Elisha, "Your servant my husband is dead, and you know that he revered the LORD. But now his creditor is coming to take my two boys as his slaves."

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