Romans 1:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Paul, a servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for the gospel of God,

King James Bible
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

American Standard Version
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Douay-Rheims Bible
PAUL, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

English Revised Version
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated unto the gospel of God,

Webster's Bible Translation
Paul, a servant of Jesus Christ, called to be an apostle, separated to the gospel of God,

Weymouth New Testament
Paul, a bondservant of Jesus Christ, called to be an Apostle, set apart to proclaim God's Good News,

Romans 1:1 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Superscription (Romans 1:1, Romans 1:2)

Dr. Morison observes that the superscription is peerless for its wealth of theological idea.

Paul (Παῦλος)

A transcript for the Latin paulus or paullus, meaning little. It was a favorite name among the Cilicians, and the nearest approach in sound to the Hebrew Saul. According to some, both names were borne by him in his childhood, Paulus being the one by which he was known among the Gentiles, and which was subsequently assumed by him to the exclusion of the other, in order to indicate his position as the friend and teacher of the Gentiles. The practice of adopting Gentile names may be traced through all the periods of Hebrew history. Double names also, national and foreign, often occur in combination, as Belteshazzar-Daniel; Esther-Hadasa; thus Saul-Paulus.

Others find in the name an expression of humility, according to Paul's declaration that he was "the least of the apostles" (1 Corinthians 15:9). Others, an allusion to his diminutive stature; and others again think that he assumed the name out of compliment to Sergius Paulus, the deputy of Cyprus. Dean Howson, while rejecting this explanation, remarks: "We cannot believe it accidental that the words 'who is also called Paul,' occur at this particular point of the inspired narrative. The heathen name rises to the surface at the moment when St. Paul visibly enters on his office as the apostle of the heathen. The Roman name is stereotyped at the moment when he converts the Roman governor."

A servant (δοῦλος)

Lit., bond-servant or slave. Paul applies the term to himself, Galatians 1:10; Philippians 1:1; Titus 1:1; and frequently to express the relation of believers to Christ. The word involves the ideas of belonging to a master, and of service as a slave. The former is emphasized in Paul's use of the term, since Christian service, in his view, has no element of servility, but is the expression of love and of free choice. From this stand-point the idea of service coheres with those of freedom and of sonship. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:22; Galatians 4:7; Ephesians 6:6; Plm 1:16.

On the other hand, believers belong to Christ by purchase (1 Corinthians 6:20; 1 Peter 1:18; Ephesians 1:7), and own Him as absolute Master. It is a question whether the word contains any reference to official position. In favor of this it may be said that when employed in connection with the names of individuals, it is always applied to those who have some special work as teachers or ministers, and that most of such instances occur in the opening salutations of the apostolic letters. The meaning, in any case, must not be limited to the official sense.

Called to be an apostle (κλητὸς ἀπόστολος)

As the previous phrase describes generally Paul's relation to Christ, this expression indicates it specifically. "Called to be an apostle" (A.V. and Rev.), signifies called to the office of an apostle. Yet, as Dr. Morison observes, there is an ambiguity in the rendering, since he who is simply called to be an apostle may have his apostleship as yet only in the future. The Greek indicates that the writer was actually in the apostolate - a called apostle. Godet, "an apostle by way of call."

Separated unto the gospel of God (ἀφωρισμένος εἰς εὐαγγέλιον Θεοῦ)

Characterizing the preceding phrase more precisely: definitely separated from the rest of mankind. Compare Galatians 1:15, and "chosen vessel," Acts 9:15. The verb means "to mark off (ἀπό) from others by a boundary (ὅρος)." It is used of the final separation of the righteous from the wicked (Matthew 13:49; Matthew 25:32); of the separation of the disciples from the world (Luke 6:22); and of the setting apart of apostles to special functions (Acts 13:2). Gospel is an exception to the almost invariable usage, in being without the article (compare Revelation 14:6); since Paul considers the Gospel rather as to its quality - good news from God - than as the definite proclamation of Jesus Christ as a Savior. The defining elements are added subsequently in Romans 1:3, Romans 1:4. Not the preaching of the Gospel, but; the message itself is meant. For Gospel, see on superscription of Matthew.

Romans 1:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Paul.

Acts 13:9 Then Saul, (who also is called Paul,) filled with the Holy Ghost, set his eyes on him.

Acts 21:40 And when he had given him license, Paul stood on the stairs, and beckoned with the hand to the people...

Acts 22:7,13 And I fell to the ground, and heard a voice saying to me, Saul, Saul, why persecute you me...

Acts 26:1,14 Then Agrippa said to Paul, You are permitted to speak for yourself. Then Paul stretched forth the hand, and answered for himself...

a servant.

Romans 1:9 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son...

Romans 15:16 That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God...

Romans 16:18 For they that are such serve not our Lord Jesus Christ, but their own belly...

John 12:26 If any man serve me, let him follow me; and where I am, there shall also my servant be: if any man serve me, him will my Father honor.

John 13:14-16 If I then, your Lord and Master, have washed your feet; you also ought to wash one another's feet...

John 15:15,20 From now on I call you not servants; for the servant knows not what his lord does: but I have called you friends...

Acts 27:23 For there stood by me this night the angel of God, whose I am, and whom I serve,

2 Corinthians 4:5 For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus the Lord; and ourselves your servants for Jesus' sake.

Galatians 1:10 For do I now persuade men, or God? or do I seek to please men? for if I yet pleased men, I should not be the servant of Christ.

Philippians 1:1 Paul and Timotheus, the servants of Jesus Christ, to all the saints in Christ Jesus which are at Philippi...

Philippians 2:11 And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

Philippians 3:6,7 Concerning zeal, persecuting the church; touching the righteousness which is in the law, blameless...

Titus 1:1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect...

James 1:1 James, a servant of God and of the Lord Jesus Christ, to the twelve tribes which are scattered abroad, greeting.

2 Peter 1:1 Simon Peter, a servant and an apostle of Jesus Christ...

Jude 1:1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ...

Revelation 1:1 The Revelation of Jesus Christ, which God gave to him, to show to his servants things which must shortly come to pass...

Revelation 22:6,9 And he said to me, These sayings are faithful and true...

called.

Romans 1:5 By whom we have received grace and apostleship, for obedience to the faith among all nations, for his name:

Romans 11:13 For I speak to you Gentiles, inasmuch as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify my office:

Acts 9:15 But the Lord said to him, Go your way: for he is a chosen vessel to me, to bear my name before the Gentiles, and kings...

Acts 22:14,15,21 And he said, The God of our fathers has chosen you, that you should know his will, and see that Just One...

Acts 26:16-18 But rise, and stand on your feet: for I have appeared to you for this purpose...

1 Corinthians 1:1 Paul called to be an apostle of Jesus Christ through the will of God, and Sosthenes our brother,

1 Corinthians 9:1,16-18 Am I not an apostle? am I not free? have I not seen Jesus Christ our Lord? are not you my work in the Lord...

1 Corinthians 15:8-10 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of one born out of due time...

2 Corinthians 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, to the church of God which is at Corinth...

2 Corinthians 11:5 For I suppose I was not a whit behind the very most chief apostles.

2 Corinthians 12:11 I am become a fool in glorying; you have compelled me: for I ought to have been commended of you...

Galatians 1:1,11-17 Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)...

Ephesians 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, to the saints which are at Ephesus, and to the faithful in Christ Jesus:

Ephesians 3:5-7 Which in other ages was not made known to the sons of men, as it is now revealed to his holy apostles and prophets by the Spirit...

Ephesians 4:11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers;

Colossians 1:1,25 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the will of God, and Timotheus our brother...

1 Timothy 1:1,11,12 Paul, an apostle of Jesus Christ by the commandment of God our Savior, and Lord Jesus Christ, which is our hope...

1 Timothy 2:7 Whereunto I am ordained a preacher, and an apostle, (I speak the truth in Christ...

2 Timothy 1:11 Whereunto I am appointed a preacher, and an apostle, and a teacher of the Gentiles.

Titus 1:1 Paul, a servant of God, and an apostle of Jesus Christ, according to the faith of God's elect...

Hebrews 5:4 And no man takes this honor to himself, but he that is called of God, as was Aaron.

separated.

Leviticus 20:24-26 But I have said to you, You shall inherit their land, and I will give it to you to possess it, a land that flows with milk and honey...

Numbers 16:9,10 Seems it but a small thing to you, that the God of Israel has separated you from the congregation of Israel...

Deuteronomy 10:8 At that time the LORD separated the tribe of Levi, to bear the ark of the covenant of the LORD...

1 Chronicles 23:13 The sons of Amram; Aaron and Moses: and Aaron was separated, that he should sanctify the most holy things, he and his sons for ever...

Isaiah 49:1 Listen, O isles, to me; and listen, you people, from far; The LORD has called me from the womb...

Jeremiah 1:5 Before I formed you in the belly I knew you; and before you came forth out of the womb I sanctified you...

Acts 13:2-4 As they ministered to the Lord, and fasted, the Holy Ghost said...

Galatians 1:15 But when it pleased God, who separated me from my mother's womb, and called me by his grace,

1 Timothy 1:15,16 This is a faithful saying, and worthy of all acceptation, that Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners; of whom I am chief...

Hebrews 7:26 For such an high priest became us, who is holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners, and made higher than the heavens;

the gospel.

Romans 1:9,16 For God is my witness, whom I serve with my spirit in the gospel of his Son...

Romans 15:16,29 That I should be the minister of Jesus Christ to the Gentiles, ministering the gospel of God...

Romans 16:25 Now to him that is of power to establish you according to my gospel, and the preaching of Jesus Christ...

Mark 16:15,16 And he said to them, Go you into all the world, and preach the gospel to every creature...

Luke 2:10,11 And the angel said to them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people...

Acts 20:24 But none of these things move me, neither count I my life dear to myself, so that I might finish my course with joy, and the ministry...

Ephesians 1:13 In whom you also trusted, after that you heard the word of truth, the gospel of your salvation: in whom also after that you believed...

1 Thessalonians 2:2 But even after that we had suffered before, and were shamefully entreated, as you know, at Philippi...

2 Thessalonians 2:13,14 But we are bound to give thanks always to God for you, brothers beloved of the Lord...

1 Timothy 1:11 According to the glorious gospel of the blessed God, which was committed to my trust.

Cross References
Mark 1:14
Now after John was arrested, Jesus came into Galilee, proclaiming the gospel of God,

Acts 9:15
But the Lord said to him, "Go, for he is a chosen instrument of mine to carry my name before the Gentiles and kings and the children of Israel.

Acts 13:2
While they were worshiping the Lord and fasting, the Holy Spirit said, "Set apart for me Barnabas and Saul for the work to which I have called them."

Romans 15:16
to be a minister of Christ Jesus to the Gentiles in the priestly service of the gospel of God, so that the offering of the Gentiles may be acceptable, sanctified by the Holy Spirit.

1 Corinthians 1:1
Paul, called by the will of God to be an apostle of Christ Jesus, and our brother Sosthenes,

1 Corinthians 9:1
Am I not free? Am I not an apostle? Have I not seen Jesus our Lord? Are not you my workmanship in the Lord?

2 Corinthians 1:1
Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, To the church of God that is at Corinth, with all the saints who are in the whole of Achaia:

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