Malachi 1:3
Strong's Lexicon
but
וְאֶת־ (wə·’eṯ-)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 853: 1) sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative

Esau
עֵשָׂ֖ו (‘ê·śāw)
Noun - proper - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 6215: Esau = 'hairy' 1) eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca and twin brother of Jacob; sold the birthright for food when he was hungry and the divine blessing went to Jacob; progenitor of the Arab peoples

I have hated,
שָׂנֵ֑אתִי (śā·nê·ṯî)
Verb - Qal - Perfect - first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 8130: 1) to hate, be hateful 1a) (Qal) to hate 1a1) of man 1a2) of God 1a3) hater, one hating, enemy (participle) (subst) 1b) (Niphal) to be hated 1c) (Piel) hater (participle) 1c1) of persons, nations, God, wisdom

and I have made
וָאָשִׂ֤ים (wā·’ā·śîm)
Conjunctive waw | Verb - Qal - Consecutive imperfect - first person common singular
Strong's Hebrew 7760: 1) to put, place, set, appoint, make 1a) (Qal) 1a1) to put, set, lay, put or lay upon, lay (violent) hands on 1a2) to set, direct, direct toward 1a2a) to extend (compassion) (fig) 1a3) to set, ordain, establish, found, appoint, constitute, make, determine, fix 1a4) to set, station, put, set in place, plant, fix 1a5) to make, make for, transform into, constitute, fashion, work, bring to pass, appoint, give 1b) (Hiphil) to set or make for a sign 1c) (Hophal) to be set

his mountains
הָרָיו֙ (hā·rāw)
Noun - masculine plural construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 2022: 1) hill, mountain, hill country, mount

a wasteland
שְׁמָמָ֔ה (šə·mā·māh)
Noun - feminine singular
Strong's Hebrew 8077: 1) devastation, waste, desolation

וְאֶת־ (wə·’eṯ-)
Conjunctive waw | Direct object marker
Strong's Hebrew 853: 1) sign of the definite direct object, not translated in English but generally preceding and indicating the accusative

and left his inheritance
נַחֲלָת֖וֹ (na·ḥă·lā·ṯōw)
Noun - feminine singular construct | third person masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 5159: 1) possession, property, inheritance, heritage 1a) property 1b) portion, share 1c) inheritance, portion

to the desert
מִדְבָּֽר׃ (miḏ·bār)
Noun - masculine singular
Strong's Hebrew 4057: 1) wilderness 1a) pasture 1b) uninhabited land, wilderness 1c) large tracts of wilderness (around cities) 1d) wilderness (fig.) 2) mouth 2a) mouth (as organ of speech)

jackals.”
לְתַנּ֥וֹת (lə·ṯan·nō·wṯ)
Preposition-l | Noun - common plural
Strong's Hebrew 8568: 1) habitations, jackals, (TWOT) dragon, (TWOT) sea monster 1a) meaning uncertain

Parallel Strong's
Holman Christian Standard Bible
but I hated Esau. I turned his mountains into a wasteland, and gave his inheritance to the desert jackals.”

New American Standard Bible
but I have hated Esau, and I have made his mountains a desolation and [appointed] his inheritance for the jackals of the wilderness."

King James Bible
And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.
Parallel Verses
New International Version
but Esau I have hated, and I have turned his hill country into a wasteland and left his inheritance to the desert jackals."

New Living Translation
but I rejected his brother, Esau, and devastated his hill country. I turned Esau's inheritance into a desert for jackals."

English Standard Version
but Esau I have hated. I have laid waste his hill country and left his heritage to jackals of the desert.”

New American Standard Bible
but I have hated Esau, and I have made his mountains a desolation and appointed his inheritance for the jackals of the wilderness."

King James Bible
And I hated Esau, and laid his mountains and his heritage waste for the dragons of the wilderness.

Holman Christian Standard Bible
but I hated Esau. I turned his mountains into a wasteland, and gave his inheritance to the desert jackals."

International Standard Version
rejected Esau, turned his mountains into a wasteland, and gave his inheritance to desert jackals.

NET Bible
and rejected Esau. I turned Esau's mountains into a deserted wasteland and gave his territory to the wild jackals."

American Standard Version
but Esau I hated, and made his mountains a desolation, and gave his heritage to the jackals of the wilderness.

English Revised Version
but Esau I hated, and made his mountains a desolation, and gave his heritage to the jackals of the wilderness.

Young's Literal Translation
Is not Esau Jacob's brother? -- an affirmation of Jehovah, And I love Jacob, and Esau I have hated, And I make his mountains a desolation, And his inheritance for dragons of a wilderness.






Cross References
Genesis 25:23
And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger.

Isaiah 34:10
It shall not be quenched night nor day; the smoke thereof shall go up for ever: from generation to generation it shall lie waste; none shall pass through it for ever and ever.

Jeremiah 49:8
Flee ye, turn back, dwell deep, O inhabitants of Dedan; for I will bring the calamity of Esau upon him, the time that I will visit him.

Jeremiah 49:10
But I have made Esau bare, I have uncovered his secret places, and he shall not be able to hide himself: his seed is spoiled, and his brethren, and his neighbours, and he is not.

Jeremiah 49:16
Thy terribleness hath deceived thee, and the pride of thine heart, O thou that dwellest in the clefts of the rock, that holdest the height of the hill: though thou shouldest make thy nest as high as the eagle, I will bring thee down from thence, saith the LORD.

Jeremiah 49:20
Therefore hear the counsel of the LORD, that he hath taken against Edom; and his purposes, that he hath purposed against the inhabitants of Teman: Surely the least of the flock shall draw them out: surely he shall make their habitations desolate with them.

Jeremiah 49:33
And Hazor shall be a dwelling for dragons, and a desolation for ever: there shall no man abide there, nor any son of man dwell in it.

Lamentations 4:22
The punishment of thine iniquity is accomplished, O daughter of Zion; he will no more carry thee away into captivity: he will visit thine iniquity, O daughter of Edom; he will discover thy sins.

Ezekiel 25:13
Therefore thus saith the Lord GOD; I will also stretch out mine hand upon Edom, and will cut off man and beast from it; and I will make it desolate from Teman; and they of Dedan shall fall by the sword.

Ezekiel 35:3
And say unto it, Thus saith the Lord GOD; Behold, O mount Seir, I am against thee, and I will stretch out mine hand against thee, and I will make thee most desolate.

Ezekiel 35:4
I will lay thy cities waste, and thou shalt be desolate, and thou shalt know that I am the LORD.
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