Ezekiel 38:2
Parallel Verses
New International Version
"Son of man, set your face against Gog, of the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshek and Tubal; prophesy against him

King James Bible
Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal, and prophesy against him,

Darby Bible Translation
Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him,

World English Bible
Son of man, set your face toward Gog, of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy against him,

Young's Literal Translation
'Son of man, set thy face unto Gog, of the land of Magog, prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, and prophesy concerning him,

Ezekiel 38:2 Parallel
Commentary
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Son of man, set thy face against Gog, the land of Magog - This is allowed to be the most difficult prophecy in the Old Testament. It is difficult to us, because we know not the king nor people intended by it: but I am satisfied they were well known by these names in the time that the prophet wrote.

I have already remarked in the introduction to this book that there are but two opinions on this subject that appear to be at all probable:

1. That which makes Gog Cambyses, king of Persia; and,

2. That which makes him Antiochus Epiphanes, king of Syria.

And between these two (for one or other is supposed to be the person intended) men are much divided.

Calmet, one of the most judicious commentators that ever wrote on the Bible, declares for Cambyses; and supports his opinion, in opposition to all others, by many arguments.

Mr. Mede supposes the Americans are meant who were originally colonies of the Scythians who were descendants of Magog, son of Japheth. Houbigant declares for the Scythians, whose neighbors were the people of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal, that is the Russians, Muscovites, and Tybareni or Cappadocians. Several eminent critics espouse this opinion. Rabbi David Kimchi says the Christians and Turks are meant: and of later opinions there are several, founded in the ocean of conjecture. Calmet says expressly, that Gog is Cambyses, king of Persia, who on his return from the land of Egypt, died in Judea. The Revelation David Martin, pastor of the Waloon church at Utrecht, concludes, after examining all previous opinions, that Antiochus Epiphanes, the great enemy on the Israelites, is alone intended here; and that Gog, which signifies covered, is an allusion to the well-known character of Antiochus, whom historians describe as an artful, cunning, and dissembling man. See Daniel 8:23, Daniel 8:25; Daniel 11:23, Daniel 11:27, Daniel 11:32. Magog he supposes to mean the country of Syria. Of this opinion the following quotation from Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. v., c. 23, seems a proof; who, speaking of Coele-Syria, says Coele habet Apamiam Marsyia amne divisam a Nazarinorum Tetrarchia. Bambycem quam alio nomine Hierapolis vocatur, Syris vero Magog. "Coele-Syria has Apamia separated from the tetrarchy of the Nazarenes by the river Marsyia; and Bambyce, otherwise called Hierapolis; but by the Syrians, Magog."

I shall at present examine the text by this latter opinion.

Chief prince of Meshech and Tubal - These probably mean the auxiliary forces, over whom Antiochus was supreme; they were the Muscovites and Cappadocians.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Son

Ezekiel 2:1 And he said to me, Son of man, stand on your feet, and I will speak to you.

Ezekiel 39:1 Therefore, you son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say, Thus said the Lord GOD; Behold, I am against you...

set

Ezekiel 6:2 Son of man, set your face toward the mountains of Israel, and prophesy against them,

Ezekiel 20:46 Son of man, set your face toward the south, and drop your word toward the south, and prophesy against the forest of the south field;

Ezekiel 25:2 Son of man, set your face against the Ammonites, and prophesy against them;

Ezekiel 35:2,3 Son of man, set your face against mount Seir, and prophesy against it...

Gog. Rather, `Gog (the prince) of the land of Magog, the prince of Rosh, Meshech, and Tubal.' By Magog is most probably meant the Scythians or Tartars, called so by Arabian and Syrian writers, and especially the Turks, who were originally natives of Tartary; and by Rosh, the Russians, descendants of the ancient inhabitants on the river Araxes or Rosh.

Revelation 20:8,9 And shall go out to deceive the nations which are in the four quarters of the earth, Gog, and Magog, to gather them together to battle...

Magog

Genesis 10:2 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

1 Chronicles 1:5 The sons of Japheth; Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, and Tubal, and Meshech, and Tiras.

the chief prince of. or, prince of the chief of
Meshech

Ezekiel 27:13 Javan, Tubal, and Meshech, they were your merchants: they traded the persons of men and vessels of brass in your market.

Ezekiel 32:26 There is Meshech, Tubal, and all her multitude: her graves are round about him: all of them uncircumcised, slain by the sword...

Isaiah 66:19 And I will set a sign among them, and I will send those that escape of them to the nations, to Tarshish, Pul, and Lud...

Library
The Power of Assyria at Its Zenith; Esarhaddon and Assur-Bani-Pal
The Medes and Cimmerians: Lydia--The conquest of Egypt, of Arabia, and of Elam. As we have already seen, Sennacherib reigned for eight years after his triumph; eight years of tranquillity at home, and of peace with all his neighbours abroad. If we examine the contemporary monuments or the documents of a later period, and attempt to glean from them some details concerning the close of his career, we find that there is a complete absence of any record of national movement on the part of either Elam,
G. Maspero—History Of Egypt, Chaldaea, Syria, Babylonia, and Assyria, V 8

Cross References
Revelation 20:8
and will go out to deceive the nations in the four corners of the earth--Gog and Magog--and to gather them for battle. In number they are like the sand on the seashore.

Genesis 10:2
The sons of Japheth: Gomer, Magog, Madai, Javan, Tubal, Meshek and Tiras.

Psalm 120:5
Woe to me that I dwell in Meshek, that I live among the tents of Kedar!

Ezekiel 27:13
"'Greece, Tubal and Meshek did business with you; they traded human beings and articles of bronze for your wares.

Ezekiel 32:26
"Meshek and Tubal are there, with all their hordes around their graves. All of them are uncircumcised, killed by the sword because they spread their terror in the land of the living.

Ezekiel 38:1
The word of the LORD came to me:

Ezekiel 38:3
and say: 'This is what the Sovereign LORD says: I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshek and Tubal.

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