Esther 10:3
Parallel Verses
New International Version
Mordecai the Jew was second in rank to King Xerxes, preeminent among the Jews, and held in high esteem by his many fellow Jews, because he worked for the good of his people and spoke up for the welfare of all the Jews.

King James Bible
For Mordecai the Jew was next unto king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the wealth of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.

Darby Bible Translation
For Mordecai the Jew was second to king Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking the welfare of his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.

World English Bible
For Mordecai the Jew was next to King Ahasuerus, and great among the Jews, and accepted by the multitude of his brothers, seeking the good of his people, and speaking peace to all his descendants.

Young's Literal Translation
For Mordecai the Jew is second to king Ahasuerus, and a great man of the Jews, and accepted of the multitude of his brethren, seeking good for his people, and speaking peace to all his seed.

Esther 10:3 Parallel
Clarke's Commentary on the Bible

Was next unto king Ahasuerus - He was his prime minister; and, under him, was the governor of the whole empire.

The Targum is extravagant in its encomiums upon Mordecai: "All the kings of the earth feared and trembled before him: he was as resplendent as the evening star among the stars; and was as bright as Aurora beaming forth in the morning; and he was chief of the kings."

Seeking the wealth of his people - Studying to promote the Jewish interest to the utmost of his power.

Speaking peace to all his seed - Endeavoring to settle their prosperity upon such a basis, that it might be for ever permanent. Here the Hebrew text ends; but in the ancient Vulgate, and in the Greek, ten verses are added to this chapter, and six whole chapters besides, so that the number of chapters in Esther amounts to sixteen. A translation of these may be found in the Apocrypha, bound up with the sacred text, in most of our larger English Bibles. On any part of this work it is not my province to add any comment.

This is the last of the historical books of the Old Testament, for from this time to the birth of Christ they had no inspired writers; and the interval of their history must be sought among the apocryphal writers and other historians who have written on Jewish affairs. The most complete supplement to this history will be found in that most excellent work of Dean Prideaux, entitled The Old and New Testaments connected, in the History of the Jews and Neighbouring Nations, from the Declension of the Kingdoms of Israel and Judah to the time of Christ, 4 vols. 8vo. 1725. The editions prior to this date are not so complete.

We have already seen what the Feast of Purim means, and why it was instituted; if the reader is desirous of farther information on this subject, he may find it in the works of Buxtorf, Leusden, Stehlin, and Calmet's Dictionary, article Pur.

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

next unto king.

Genesis 41:44 And Pharaoh said to Joseph, I am Pharaoh, and without you shall no man lift up his hand or foot in all the land of Egypt.

1 Samuel 23:17 And he said to him, Fear not: for the hand of Saul my father shall not find you; and you shall be king over Israel...

2 Chronicles 28:7 And Zichri, a mighty man of Ephraim, slew Maaseiah the king's son, and Azrikam the governor of the house...

Daniel 5:16,29 And I have heard of you, that you can make interpretations, and dissolve doubts: now if you can read the writing...


Esther 3:2 And all the king's servants, that were in the king's gate, bowed, and reverenced Haman: for the king had so commanded concerning him...

Romans 14:18 For he that in these things serves Christ is acceptable to God, and approved of men.


Nehemiah 2:10 When Sanballat the Horonite, and Tobiah the servant, the Ammonite, heard of it...

Psalm 122:6-9 Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: they shall prosper that love you...

Romans 9:2,3 That I have great heaviness and continual sorrow in my heart...

Romans 10:1 Brothers, my heart's desire and prayer to God for Israel is, that they might be saved.


This Book, which derives its name from the person whose history it chiefly relates, is termed in Hebrew, megillath Esther, the volume of Esther. Concerning its author there are various opinions: some attribute it to Ezra; some to Joachim, the son of Joshua the high priest; others to the men of the great synagogue; and others to Mordecai, which seems the most probable opinion. The events here related probably refer to the time of Artaxerxes Longimanus, who, according to Prideaux, was the Ahasuerus of Esther, agreeably to Josephus, (Ant.

Esther 10:1 And the king Ahasuerus laid a tribute on the land, and on the isles of the sea.

xi. c.6,) the Septuagint version, and the apocryphal additions to this book. The history, therefore, comes in between the sixth and seventh chapters of Ezra, commencing about A.M.

3540, and continuing through a period of twelve years: it relates the royal feast of Ahasuerus; the disgrace of Vashti, (ch. i.;) the elevation of Esther to the Persian throne; the essential service rendered to the king by Mordecai, in detecting a plot against his life, (ch. ii.;) the promotion of Haman, and his purposed destruction of the Jews, (ch. iii.;) the consequent affliction of the Jews, and the measures pursued by them, (ch. iv.;) the defeat of Haman's plot, through the instrumentality of Esther, against Mordecai, (ch. v.-vii.;) and also the defeat of his general plot against the Jews, (ch. viii.; ix.

1-15;) the institution of the feast of Purim to commemorate this deliverance, (ch. ix.

16-32;) and the advancement of Mordecai, (ch. x.;) and though some Christians have hesitated to receive this book into the sacred canon, yet it has always been received by the Jews, not only as perfectly authentic, but also as one of the most excellent of their sacred books. That it is a genuine and faithful description of a real fact, the observation of the feast of Purim, to the present day, is a sufficient evidence; since it is impossible, and in fact inconceivable, that a nation should institute, and afterwards continue to celebrate without interruption, through every generation of that people, in a long succession of ages, in whatever places they may have sojourned, this solemn annual festival, merely because one of their nation had written an agreeable fable or romance. It has been remarked, as an objection to this book, that the name of God no where occurs in it: His superintending providence, however, is frequently illustrated. It is shewn, indeed, in every part of the work; disconcerting evil designs, and producing great events, by means seemingly inadequate. It also presents an interesting description of mortified pride, and of malice baffled to the destruction of its possessors; and exhibits a very lively representation of the vexations and troubles, the anxieties, treachery, and dissimulation of a corrupt court.

In the Days of Queen Esther
Under the favor shown them by Cyrus, nearly fifty thousand of the children of the captivity had taken advantage of the decree permitting their return. These, however, in comparison with the hundreds of thousands scattered throughout the provinces of Medo-Persia, were but a mere remnant. The great majority of the Israelites had chosen to remain in the land of their exile rather than undergo the hardships of the return journey and the re-establishment of their desolated cities and homes. A score or
Ellen Gould White—The Story of Prophets and Kings

Cross References
Genesis 41:43
He had him ride in a chariot as his second-in-command, and people shouted before him, "Make way!" Thus he put him in charge of the whole land of Egypt.

Genesis 41:44
Then Pharaoh said to Joseph, "I am Pharaoh, but without your word no one will lift hand or foot in all Egypt."

Nehemiah 2:10
When Sanballat the Horonite and Tobiah the Ammonite official heard about this, they were very much disturbed that someone had come to promote the welfare of the Israelites.

Psalm 122:9
For the sake of the house of the LORD our God, I will seek your prosperity.

Daniel 6:3
Now Daniel so distinguished himself among the administrators and the satraps by his exceptional qualities that the king planned to set him over the whole kingdom.

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Accepted Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Descendants Esteem Favor Fellow Good Great Held High Jew Jews Kinsmen Mordecai Mor'decai Multitude Nation Peace Preeminent Rank Second Seed Seeking Sought Speaking Wealth Welfare Whole Worked Xerxes
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Accepted Ahasuerus Ahasu-E'rus Descendants Esteem Favor Fellow Good Great Held High Jew Jews Kinsmen Mordecai Mor'decai Multitude Nation Peace Preeminent Rank Second Seed Seeking Sought Speaking Wealth Welfare Whole Worked Xerxes
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