The Ecclesiastical History of sozomenus

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Part I.--The Life.

Part II.--Sozomen as Author.

Part III.--Bibliography.

Part IV.--Conclusion.

Prefatory Remarks, by Valesius,

Memoir of Sozomen.

Address to the Emperor Theodosius by Salaminius Hermias Sozomen, and Proposal for an Ecclesiastical History.

The ECCLESIASTICAL HistorY, of salaminius hermias sozomenus. Book I.

Chapter I.--The Preface of the Book, in which he investigates the

Chapter II.--Of the Bishops of the Large Towns in the Reign of Constantine; and how, from fear of Licinius, Christianity was professed cautiously in the East as far as Libya, while in the West, through the Favor of Constantine, it was professed with Freedom.

Chapter III.--By the Vision of the Cross, and by the Appearance of Christ, Constantine is led to embrace Christianity.--He receives Religious Instruction from our Brethren.

Chapter IV.--Constantine commands the Sign of the Cross to be carried before him in Battle; an Extraordinary Narrative about the Bearers of the Sign of the Cross.

Chapter V.--Refutation of the Assertion that Constantine became a Christian in consequence of the Murder of his son Crispus.

Chapter VI.--The Father of Constantine allows the Name of Christ to be Extended; Constantine the Great prepared it to Penetrate Everywhere.

Chapter VII.--Concerning the Dispute between Constantine and Licinius his Brother-In-Law about the Christians, and how Licinius was conquered by Force and put to Death.

Chapter VIII.--List of the Benefits which Constantine conferred in the Freedom of the Christians and Building of Churches; and other Deeds for the Public Welfare.

Chapter IX.--Constantine enacts a Law in favor of Celibates and of the Clergy.

Chapter X.--Concerning the Great Confessors who survived.

Chapter XI.--Account of St. Spyridon: His Modesty and Steadfastness.

Chapter XII.--On the Organization of the Monks: its Origin and Founders.

Chapter XIII.--About Antony the Great and St. Paul the Simple.

Chapter XIV.--Account of St. Ammon and Eutychius of Olympus.

Chapter XV.--The Arian Heresy, its Origin, its Progress, and the Contention which it occasioned among the Bishops.

Chapter XVI.--Constantine, having heard of the Strife of the Bishops, and the Difference of Opinion concerning the Passover, is greatly troubled and sends Hosius, a Spaniard, Bishop of Cordova, to Alexandria, to abolish the Dissension among the Bishops, and to settle the Dispute about the Passover.

Chapter XVII.--Of the Council convened at Nicæa on Account of Arius.

Chapter XVIII.--Two Philosophers are converted to the Faith by the Simplicity of Two Old Men with whom they hold a Disputation.

Chapter XIX.--When the Council was assembled, the Emperor delivered a Public Address.

Chapter XX.--After having given Audience to both Parties, the Emperor condemned the Followers of Arius and banished them.

Chapter XXI.--What the Council determined about Arius; the Condemnation of his Followers; his Writings are to be burnt; certain of the High Priests differ from the Council; the Settlement of the Passover.

Chapter XXII.--Acesius, Bishop of the Novatians, is summoned by the Emperor to be present at the First Council.

Chapter XXIII.--Canons appointed by the Council; Paphnutius, a certain Confessor, restrains the Council from forming a Canon enjoining Celibacy to all who were about to be honored with the Priesthood.

Chapter XXIV.--Concerning Melitius; the Excellent Directions made by the Holy Council in his Complications.

Chapter XXV.--The Emperor prepared a Public Table for the Synod, after inviting its Members to Constantinople, and honoring them with Gifts, he exhorted all to be of One Mind, and forwarded to Alexandria and every other place the Decrees of the Holy Synod.

Book II.

Chapter I.--The Discovery of the Life-Bringing Cross and of the Holy

Chapter II.--Concerning Helena, the Mother of the Emperor; she visited Jerusalem, built Temples in that City, and performed other Godly Works: Her Death.

Chapter III.--Temples built by Constantine the Great; the City called by his Name; its Founding; the Buildings within it; the Temple of Michael the Archsoldier, in the Sosthenium, and the Miracles which have occurred there.

Chapter IV.--What Constantine the Great effected about the Oak in Mamre; he also built a Temple.

Chapter V.--Constantine destroyed the Places dedicated to the Idols, and persuaded the People to prefer Christianity.

Chapter VI.--The Reason why under Constantine, the Name of Christ was spread throughout the Whole World.

Chapter VII.--How the Iberians received the Faith of Christ.

Chapter VIII.--How the Armenians and Persians embraced Christianity.

Chapter IX.--Sapor King of Persia is Excited against the Christians. Symeon, Bishop of Persia, and Usthazanes, a Eunuch, Suffer the Agony of Martyrdom.

Chapter X.--Christians slain by Sapor in Persia.

Chapter XI.--Pusices, Superintendent of the Artisans of Sapor.

Chapter XII.--Tarbula, the Sister of Symeon, and her Martyrdom.

Chapter XIII.--Martyrdom of St. Acepsimas and of his Companions.

Chapter XIV.--The Martyrdom of Bishop Milles and his Conduct. Sixteen Thousand Distinguished Men in Persia suffer Martyrdom under Sapor, besides Obscure Individuals.

Chapter XV.--Constantine writes to Sapor to stay the Persecution of the Christians.

Chapter XVI.--Eusebius and Theognis who at the Council of Nice had assented to the Writings of Arius restored to their own Sees.

Chapter XVII.--On the Death of Alexander, Bishop of Alexandria, at his Suggestion, Athanasius receives the Throne; and an Account of his Youth; how he was a Self-Taught Priest, and beloved by Antony the Great.

Chapter XVIII.--The Arians and Melitians confer Celebrity on Athanasius; concerning Eusebius, and his Request of Athanasius to admit Arius to Communion; concerning the Term "Consubstantial"; Eusebius Pamphilus and Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, create Tumults above all the rest.

Chapter XIX.--Synod of Antioch; Unjust Deposition of Eustathius; Euphronius receives the Throne; Constantine the Great writes to the Synod and to Eusebius Pamphilus, who refuses the Bishopric of Antioch.

Chapter XX.--Concerning Maximus, who succeeded Macarius in the See of Jerusalem.

Chapter XXI.--The Melitians and the Arians agree in Sentiment; Eusebius and Theognis endeavor to inflame anew the Disease of Arius.

Chapter XXII.--The Vain Machinations of the Arians and Melitians against St. Athanasius.

Chapter XXIII.--Calumny respecting St. Athanasius and the Hand of Arsenius.

Chapter XXIV.--Some Indian Nations received Christianity at that Time through the Instrumentality of Two Captives, Frumentius and Edesius.

Chapter XXV.--Council of Tyre; Illegal Deposition of St. Athanasius.

Chapter XXVI.--Erection of a Temple by Constantine the Great at Golgotha, in Jerusalem; its Dedication.

Chapter XXVII.--Concerning the Presbyter by whom Constantine was persuaded to recall Arius and Euzoïus from Exile; the Tractate concerning his Possibly Pious Faith, and how Arius was again received by the Synod assembled at Jerusalem.

Chapter XXVIII.--Letter from the Emperor Constantine to the Synod of Tyre, and Exile of St. Athanasius through the Machination of the Arian Faction.

Chapter XXIX.--Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople; his Refusal to receive Arius into Communion; Arius is burst asunder while seeking Natural Relief.

Chapter XXX.--Account given by the Great Athanasius of the Death of Arius.

Chapter XXXI.--Events which occurred in Alexandria after the Death of Arius. Letter of Constantine the Great to the Church there.

Chapter XXXII.--Constantine enacts a Law against all Heresies, and prohibits the People from holding Church in any place but the Catholic Church, and thus the Greater Number of Heresies disappear. The Arians who sided with Eusebius of Nicomedia, artfully attempted to obliterate the Term "Consubstantial."

Chapter XXXIII.--Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra; his Heresy and Deposition.

Chapter XXXIV.--Death of Constantine the Great; he died after Baptism and was buried in the Temple of the Holy Apostles.

Book III.

Chapter I.--After the Death of Constantine the Great, the Adherents of

Chapter II.--Return of Athanasius the Great from Rome; Letter of Constantine Cæsar, Son of Constantine the Great; Renewed Machinations of the Arians against Athanasius; Acacius of Berroea; War between Constans and Constantine.

Chapter III.--Paul, Bishop of Constantinople, and Macedonius, the Pneumatomachian.

Chapter IV.--A Sedition was excited on the Ordination of Paul.

Chapter V.--The Partial Council of Antioch; it deposed Athanasius; it substituted Gregory; its Two Statements of the Faith; those who agreed with them.

Chapter VI.--Eusebius surnamed Emesenus; Gregory accepted Alexandria; Athanasius seeks Refuge in Rome.

Chapter VII.--High Priests of Rome and of Constantinople; Restoration of Paul after Eusebius; the Slaughter of Hermogenes, a General of the Army; Constantius came from Antioch and removed Paul, and was wrathfully disposed toward the City; he allowed Macedonius to be in Doubt, and returned to Antioch.

Chapter VIII.--Arrival of the Eastern High Priests at Rome; Letter of Julius, Bishop of Rome, concerning them; by means of the Letters of Julius, Paul and Athanasius receive their own Sees; Contents of the Letter from the Archpriests of the East to Julius.

Chapter IX.--Ejection of Paul and Athanasius; Macedonius is invested with the Government of the Church of Constantinople.

Chapter X.--The Bishop of Rome writes to the Bishops of the East in Favor of Athanasius, and they send an Embassy to Rome who, with the Bishop of Rome, are to investigate the Charges against the Eastern Bishops; this Deputation is dismissed by Constans, the Cæsar.

Chapter XI.--The Long Formulary and the Enactments issued by the Synod of Sardica. Julius, Bishop of Rome, and Hosius, the Spanish Bishop, deposed by the Bishops of the East, because they held Communion with Athanasius and the Rest.

Chapter XII.--The Bishops of the Party of Julius and Hosius held another Session and deposed the Eastern High Priests, and also made a Formulary of Faith.

Chapter XIII.--After the Synod, the East and the West are separated; the West nobly adheres to the Faith of the Nicene Council, while the East is disturbed by Contention here and there over this Dogma.

Chapter XIV.--Of the Holy Men who flourished about this time in Egypt, namely, Antony, the Two Macariuses, Heraclius, Cronius, Paphnutius, Putubastus, Arsisius, Serapion, Piturion, Pachomius, Apollonius, Anuph, Hilarion, and a Register of many other Saints.

Chapter XV.--Didymus the Blind, and Aëtius the Heretic.

Chapter XVI.--Concerning St. Ephraim.

Chapter XVII.--Transactions of that Period, and Progress of Christian Doctrine through the Joint Efforts of Emperors and Arch-Priests.

Chapter XVIII.--Concerning the Doctrines held by the Sons of Constantine. Distinction between the Terms "Homoousios" and "Homoiousios." Whence it came that Constantius quickly abandoned the Correct Faith.

Chapter XIX.--Further Particulars concerning the Term "Consubstantial." Council of Ariminum, the Manner, Source, and Reason of its Convention.

Chapter XX.--Athanasius again reinstated by the Letter of Constantius, and receives his See. The Arch-Priests of Antioch. Question put by Constantius to Athanasius. The Praise of God in Hymns.

Chapter XXI.--Letter of Constantius to the Egyptians in behalf of Athanasius. Synod of Jerusalem.

Chapter XXII.--Epistle written by the Synod of Jerusalem in Favor of Athanasius.

Chapter XXIII.--Valens and Ursacius, who belonged to the Arian Faction, confess to the Bishop of Rome that they had made False Charges against Athanasius.

Chapter XXIV.--Letter of Conciliation from Valens and Ursacius to the Great Athanasius. Restoration of the Other Eastern Bishops to their own Sees. Ejection of Macedonius again; and Accession of Paul to the See.

Book IV.

Chapter I.--Death of Constans Cæsar. Occurrences which took place in

Chapter II.--Constantius again ejects Athanasius, and banishes those who represented the Homoousian Doctrine. Death of Paul, Bishop of Constantinople. Macedonius: his Second Usurpation of the See, and his Evil Deeds.

Chapter III.--Martyrdom of the Holy Notaries.

Chapter IV.--Campaign of Constantius in Sirmium, and Details concerning Vetranio and Magnentius. Gallus receives the Title of Cæsar, and is sent to the East.

Chapter V.--Cyril directs the Sacerdotal Office after Maximus, and the Largest Form of the Cross, surpassing the Sun in Splendor, again appears in the Heavens, and is visible during several Days.

Chapter VI.--Photinus, Bishop of Sirmium. His Heresy, and the Council convened at Sirmium in Opposition thereto. The Three Formularies of Faith. This Agitator of Empty Ideas was refuted by Basil of Ancyra. After his Deposition Photinus, although solicited, declined Reconciliation.

Chapter VII.--Death of the Tyrants Magnentius and Silvanus the Apostate. Sedition of the Jews in Palestine. Gallus Cæsar is slain, on Suspicion of Revolution.

Chapter VIII.--Arrival of Constantius at Rome. A Council held in Italy. Account of what happened to Athanasius the Great through the Machinations of the Arians.

Chapter IX.--Council of Milan. Flight of Athanasius.

Chapter X.--Divers Machinations of the Arians against Athanasius, and his Escape from Various Dangers through Divine Interposition. Evil Deeds perpetrated by George in Egypt after the Expulsion of Athanasius.

Chapter XI.--Liberius, Bishop of Rome, and the cause of his being exiled by Constantius. Felix his Successor.

Chapter XII.--Aëtius, the Syrian, and Eudoxius, the Successor of Leontius in Antioch. Concerning the Term "Consubstantial."

Chapter XIII.--Innovations of Eudoxius censured in a Letter written by George, Bishop of Laodicea. Deputation from the Council of Ancyra to Constantius.

Chapter XIV.--Letter of the Emperor Constantius against Eudoxius and his Partisans.

Chapter XV.--The Emperor Constantius repairs to Sirmium, recalls Liberius, and restores him to the Church of Rome; he also commands Felix to assist Liberius in the Sacerdotal Office.

Chapter XVI.--The Emperor purposed, on account of the Heresy of Aëtius and the Innovations in Antioch, to convene a Council at Nicomedia; but as an Earthquake took place in that City, and many other Affairs intervened, the Council was first convened at Nicæa, and afterwards at Ariminum and Seleucia. Account of Arsacius, the Confessor.

Chapter XVII.--Proceedings of the Council of Ariminum.

Chapter XVIII.--Letter from the Council at Ariminum to the Emperor Constantius.

Chapter XIX.--Concerning the Deputies of the Council and the Emperor's Letter; Agreement of the Adherents of Ursacius and Valens afterwards with the Letter put forth; Exile of the Archbishops. Concerning the Synod at Nicæa, and the Reason why the Synod was held in Ariminum.

Chapter XX.--Events which took place in the Eastern Churches: Marathonius, Eleusius of Cyzicus, and Macedonius expel those who maintain the Term "Consubstantial." Concerning the Churches of the Novatians; how one Church was Transported; the Novatians enter into Communion with the Orthodox.

Chapter XXI.--Proceedings of Macedonius in Mantinium. His Removal from his See when he attempted to remove the Coffin of Constantine the Great. Julian was pronounced Cæsar.

Chapter XXII.--Council of Seleucia.

Chapter XXIII.--Acacius and Aëtius; and how the Deputies of the Two Councils of Ariminum and of Seleucia were led by the Emperor to accept the Same Doctrines.

Chapter XXIV.--Formulary of the Council of Ariminum approved by the Acacians. List of the Deposed Chief-Priests, and the Causes of their Condemnation.

Chapter XXV.--Causes of the Deposition of Cyril, Bishop of Jerusalem. Mutual Dissensions among the Bishops. Melitius is ordained by the Arians, and supplants Eustathius in the Bishopric of Sebaste.

Chapter XXVI.--Death of Macedonius, Bishop of Constantinople. What Eudoxius said in his Teaching. Eudoxius and Acacius strenuously sought the Abolition of the Formularies of Faith set forth at Nicæa and at Ariminum; Troubles which thence arose in the Churches.

Chapter XXVII.--Macedonius, after his Rejection from his See, blasphemes against the Holy Spirit; Propagation of his Heresy through the Instrumentality of Marathonius and Others.

Chapter XXVIII.--The Arians, under the Impression that the divine Meletius upheld their Sentiments, translate him from Sebaste to Antioch. On his Bold Confession of the Orthodox Doctrines, they were confounded, and after they had deposed him they placed Euzoïus in the See. Meletius formed his own Church: but those who held to Consubstantiality turned away from him because he had been ordained by Arians.

Chapter XXIX.--The Partisans of Acacius again do not remain Quiet, but strive to abolish the Term "Consubstantial," and to confirm the Heresy of Arius.

Chapter XXX.--George, Bishop of Antioch, and the Chief-Priests of Jerusalem. Three Chief-Priests successively succeed Cyril; Restoration of Cyril to the See of Jerusalem.

Book V.

Chapter I.--Apostasy of Julian, the Traitor. Death of the Emperor

Chapter II.--The Life, Education, and Training of Julian, and his Accession to the Empire.

Chapter III.--Julian, on his Settlement in the Empire, began quietly to stir up Opposition to Christianity, and to introduce Paganism artfully.

Chapter IV.--Julian inflicted Evils upon the Inhabitants of Cæsarea. Bold Fidelity of Maris, Bishop of Chalcedon.

Chapter V.--Julian restores Liberty to the Christians, in order to execute Further Troubles in the Church. The Evil Treatment of Christians he devised.

Chapter VI.--Athanasius, after having been Seven Years concealed in the House of a Wise and Beautiful Virgin, reappears at that time in Public, and enters the Church of Alexandria.

Chapter VII.--Violent Death and Triumph of George, Bishop of Alexandria. The Result of Certain Occurrences in the Temple of Mithra. Letter of Julian on this Aggravated Circumstance.

Chapter VIII.--Concerning Theodore, the Keeper of the Sacred Vessels of Antioch. How Julian, the Uncle of the Traitor, on Account of these Vessels, falls a Prey to Worms.

Chapter IX.--Martyrdom of the Saints Eusebius, Nestabus, and Zeno in the City of Gaza.

Chapter X.--Concerning St. Hilarion and the Virgins in Heliopolis who were destroyed by Swine. Strange Martyrdom of Mark, Bishop of Arethusa.

Chapter XI.--Concerning Macedonius, Theodulus, Gratian, Busiris, Basil, and Eupsychius, who suffered Martyrdom in those Times.

Chapter XII.--Concerning Lucifer and Eusebius, Bishops of the West. Eusebius with Athanasius the Great and Other Bishops collect a Council at Alexandria, and confirm the Nicene Faith by defining the Consubstantiality of the Spirit with the Father and the Son. Their Decree concerning Substance and Hypostasis.

Chapter XIII.--Concerning Paulinus and Meletius, Chief-Priests of Antioch; how Eusebius and Lucifer antagonized One Another; Eusebius and Hilarius defend the Nicene Faith.

Chapter XIV.--The Partisans of Macedonius disputed with the Arians concerning Acacius.

Chapter XV.--Athanasius is again Banished; concerning Eleusius, Bishop of Cyzicus, and Titus, Bishop of Bostra; Mention of the Ancestors of the Author.

Chapter XVI.--Efforts of Julian to establish Paganism and to abolish our Usages. The Epistle which he sent to the Pagan High-Priests.

Chapter XVII.--In Order that he might not be thought Tyrannical, Julian proceeds artfully against the Christians. Abolition of the Sign of the Cross. He makes the Soldiery sacrifice, although they were Unwilling.

Chapter XVIII.--He prohibited the Christians from the Markets and from the Judicial Seats and from Sharing in Greek Education. Resistance of Basil the Great, Gregory the Theologian, and Apolinarius to this Decree. They rapidly translate the Scripture into Greek Modes of Expression. Apolinarius and Gregory Nazianzen do this more than Basil, the one in a Rhetorical Vein, the other in Epic Style and in Imitation of every Poet.

Chapter XIX.--Work written by Julian entitled "Aversion to Beards." Daphne in Antioch, a Full Description of it. Translation of the Remains of Babylas, the Holy Martyr.

Chapter XX.--In Consequence of the Translation, Many of the Christians are Ill-Treated. Theodore the Confessor. Temple of Apollo at Daphne destroyed by Fire falling from Heaven.

Chapter XXI.-- Of the Statue of Christ in Paneas which Julian overthrew and made Valueless; he erected his own Statue; this was overthrown by a Thunder-Bolt and destroyed. Fountain of Emmaus in which Christ washed his Feet. Concerning the Tree Persis, which worshiped Christ in Egypt, and the Wonders wrought through it.

Chapter XXII.--From Aversion to the Christians, Julian granted Permission to the Jews to rebuild the Temple at Jerusalem; in every Endeavor to put their Hands to the Work, Fire sprang upward and kil

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