Introduction. I. Sources and Literature.
II. Life of Socrates.
III. Socrates' Ecclesiastical History.
IV. History of Socrates' Work.
The ECCLESIASTICAL HistorY, BY SOCRATES SCHOLASTICUS. Book I.
Chapter I.--Introduction to the Work.
Chapter II.--By what Means the Emperor Constantine became a Christian.
Chapter III.--While Constantine favors the Christians, Licinius, his Colleague, persecutes them.
Chapter IV.--War arises between Constantine and Licinius on Account of the Christians.
Chapter V.--The Dispute of Arius with Alexander, his Bishop.
Chapter VI.--Division begins in the Church from this Controversy; and Alexander Bishop of Alexandria excommunicates Arius and his Adherents.
Chapter VII.--The Emperor Constantine being grieved at the Disturbance of the Churches, sends Hosius the Spaniard to Alexandria, exhorting the Bishop and Arius to Reconciliation and Unity.
Chapter VIII.--Of the Synod which was held at Nicæa in Bithynia, and the Creed there put forth.
Chapter IX.--The Letter of the Synod, relative to its Decisions: and the Condemnation of Arius and those who agreed with him.
Chapter X.--The Emperor also summons to the Synod Acesius, Bishop of the Novatians.
Chapter XI.--Of the Bishop Paphnutius.
Chapter XII.--Of Spyridon, Bishop of the Cypriots.
Chapter XIII.--Of Eutychian the Monk.
Chapter XIV.--Eusebius Bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis Bishop of Nicæa, who had been banished for agreeing in Opinion with Arius, having published their Recantation, and assented to the Creed, are reinstated in their Sees.
Chapter XV.--After the Synod, on the Death of Alexander, Athanasius is constituted Bishop of Alexandria.
Chapter XVI.--The Emperor Constantine having enlarged the Ancient Byzantium, calls it Constantinople.
Chapter XVII.--The Emperor's Mother Helena having come to Jerusalem, searches for and finds the Cross of Christ, and builds a Church.
Chapter XVIII.--The Emperor Constantine abolishes Paganism and erects many Churches in Different Places.
Chapter XIX. --In what Manner the Nations in the Interior of India were Christianized in the Times of Constantine.
Chapter XX.--In what Manner the Iberians were converted to Christianity.
Chapter XXI.--Of Anthony the Monk.
Chapter XXII.--Manes, the Founder of the Manichæan Heresy, and on his Origin.
Chapter XXIII.--Eusebius Bishop of Nicomedia, and Theognis Bishop of Nicæa, having recovered Confidence, endeavor to subvert the Nicene Creed, by plotting against Athanasius.
Chapter XXIV.--Of the Synod held at Antioch, which deposed Eustathius, Bishop of Antioch, on whose account a Sedition broke out and almost ruined the City.
Chapter XXV.--Of the Presbyter who exerted himself for the Recall of Arius.
Chapter XXVI.--Arius, on being recalled, presents a Recantation to the Emperor, and pretends to accept the Nicene Creed.
Chapter XXVII.--Arius having returned to Alexandria with the Emperor's Consent, and not being received by Athanasius, the Partisans of Eusebius bring Many Charges against Athanasius before the Emperor.
Chapter XXVIII.--On Account of the Charges against Athanasius, the Emperor convokes a Synod of Bishops at Tyre.
Chapter XXIX.--Of Arsenius, and his Hand which was said to have been cut off.
Chapter XXX.--Athanasius is found Innocent of what he was accused; his Accusers take to Flight.
Chapter XXXI.--When the Bishops will not listen to Athanasius' Defense on the Second Charge, he betakes himself to the Emperor.
Chapter XXXII.--On the Departure of Athanasius, those who composed the Synod vote his Deposition.
Chapter XXXIII.--The Members of the Synod proceed from Tyre to Jerusalem, and having celebrated the Dedication of the New Jerusalem,' receive Arius and his Followers into Communion.
Chapter XXXIV.--The Emperor summons the Synod to himself by Letter, in order that the Charges against Athanasius might be carefully examined before him.
Chapter XXXV.--The Synod not having come to the Emperor, the Partisans of Eusebius accuse Athanasius of having threatened to divert the Corn supplied to Constantinople from Alexandria: the Emperor being exasperated at this banishes Athanasius into Gaul.
Chapter XXXVI.--Of Marcellus Bishop of Ancyra, and Asterius the Sophist.
Chapter XXXVII.--After the Banishment of Athanasius, Arius having been sent for by the Emperor, raises a Disturbance against Alexander Bishop of Constantinople.
Chapter XXXVIII.--The Death of Arius.
Chapter XXXIX.--The Emperor falls sick and dies.
Chapter XL.--The Funeral of the Emperor Constantine.
Chapter I.--Introduction containing the Reason for the Author's
Chapter II.--Eusebius, Bishop of Nicomedia, and his Party, by again endeavoring to introduce the Arian Heresy, create Disturbances in the Churches.
Chapter III.--Athanasius, encouraged by the Letter of Constantine the Younger, returns to Alexandria.
Chapter IV.--On the Death of Eusebius Pamphilus, Acacius succeeds to the Bishopric of Cæsarea.
Chapter V.--The Death of Constantine the Younger.
Chapter VI.--Alexander, Bishop of Constantinople, when at the Point of Death proposes the Election either of Paul or of Macedonius as his Successor.
Chapter VII.--The Emperor Constantius ejects Paul after his Election to the Bishopric, and sending for Eusebius of Nicomedia, invests him with the Bishopric of Constantinople.
Chapter VIII.--Eusebius having convened Another Synod at Antioch in Syria, causes a New Creed to be promulgated.
Chapter IX.--Of Eusebius of Emisa.
Chapter X.--The Bishops assembled at Antioch, on the Refusal of Eusebius of Emisa to accept the Bishopric of Alexandria, ordain Gregory, and change the Language of the Nicene Creed.
Chapter XI.--On the Arrival of Gregory at Alexandria, tended by a Military Escort, Athanasius flees.
Chapter XII.--The People of Constantinople restore Paul to his See after the Death of Eusebius, while the Arians elect Macedonius.
Chapter XIII.--Paul is again ejected from the Church by Constantius, in consequence of the Slaughter of Hermogenes, his General.
Chapter XIV.--The Arians remove Gregory from the See of Alexandria, and appoint George in his Place.
Chapter XV.--Athanasius and Paul going to Rome, and having obtained Letters from Bishop Julius, recover their respective Dioceses.
Chapter XVI.--The Emperor Constantius, through an Order to Philip the Prætorian Prefect, secures the Exile of Paul, and the Installation of Macedonius in his See.
Chapter XVII.--Athanasius, intimidated by the Emperor's Threats, returns to Rome again.
Chapter XVIII.--The Emperor of the West requests his Brother to send him Three Persons who could give an Account of the Deposition of Athanasius and Paul. Those who are sent publish Another Form of the Creed.
Chapter XIX.--Of the Creed sent by the Eastern Bishops to those in Italy, called the Lengthy Creed.
Chapter XX.--Of the Council at Sardica.
Chapter XXI.--Defense of Eusebius Pamphilus.
Chapter XXII.--The Council of Sardica restores Paul and Athanasius to their Sees; and on the Eastern Emperor's Refusal to admit them, the Emperor of the West threatens him with War.
Chapter XXIII.--Constantius, being Afraid of his Brother's Threats, recalls Athanasius by Letter, and sends him to Alexandria.
Chapter XXIV.--Athanasius, passing through Jerusalem on his Return to Alexandria, is received into Communion by Maximus: and a Synod of Bishops, convened in that City, confirms the Nicene Creed.
Chapter XXV.--Of the Usurpers Magnentius and Vetranio.
Chapter XXVI.--After the Death of Constans, the Western Emperor, Paul and Athanasius are again ejected from their Sees: the Former on his Way into Exile is slain; but the Latter escapes by Flight.
Chapter XXVII.--Macedonius having possessed himself of the See of Constantinople inflicts much Injury on those who differ from him.
Chapter XXVIII.--Athanasius' Account of the Deeds of Violence committed at Alexandria by George the Arian.
Chapter XXIX.--Of the Heresiarch Photinus.
Chapter XXX.--Creeds published at Sirmium in Presence of the Emperor Constantius.
Chapter XXXI.--Of Hosius, Bishop of Cordova.
Chapter XXXII.--Overthrow of the Usurper Magnentius.
Chapter XXXIII.--Of the Jews inhabiting Dio-Cæsarea in Palestine.
Chapter XXXIV.--Of Gallus Cæsar.
Chapter XXXV.--Of Aëtius the Syrian, Teacher of Eunomius.
Chapter XXXVI.--Of the Synod at Milan.
Chapter XXXVII.--Of the Synod at Ariminum, and the Creed there published.
Chapter XXXVIII.--Cruelty of Macedonius, and Tumults raised by him.
Chapter XXXIX.--Of the Synod at Seleucia, in Isauria.
Chapter XL.--Acacius, Bishop of Cæsarea, dictates a new Form of Creed in the Synod at Seleucia.
Chapter XLI.--On the Emperor's Return from the West, the Acacians assemble at Constantinople, and confirm the Creed of Ariminum, after making Some Additions to it.
Chapter XLII.--On the Deposition of Macedonius, Eudoxius obtains the Bishopric of Constantinople.
Chapter XLIII.--Of Eustathius Bishop of Sebastia.
Chapter XLIV.--Of Meletius Bishop of Antioch.
Chapter XLV.--The Heresy of Macedonius.
Chapter XLVI.--Of the Apollinarians, and their Heresy.
Chapter XLVII.--Successes of Julian; Death of the Emperor Constantius.
Chapter I.--Of Julian; his Lineage and Education; his Elevation to the
Chapter II.--Of the Sedition excited at Alexandria, and how George was slain.
Chapter III.--The Emperor Indignant at the Murder of George, rebukes the Alexandrians by Letter.
Chapter IV.--On the Death of George, Athanasius returns to Alexandria, and takes Possession of his See.
Chapter V.--Of Lucifer and Eusebius.
Chapter VI.--Lucifer goes to Antioch and consecrates Paulinus.
Chapter VII.--By the Co-operation of Eusebius and Athanasius a Synod is held at Alexandria, wherein the Trinity is declared to be Consubstantial.
Chapter VIII.--Quotations from Athanasius' Defense of his Flight.'
Chapter IX.--After the Synod of Alexandria, Eusebius proceeding to Antioch finds the Catholics at Variance on Account of Paulinus' Consecration; and having exerted himself in vain to reconcile them, he departs; Indignation of Lucifer and Origin of a Sect called after him.
Chapter X.--Of Hilary Bishop of Poictiers.
Chapter XI.--The Emperor Julian extracts Money from the Christians.
Chapter XII.--Of Maris Bishop of Chalcedon; Julian forbids Christians from entering Literary Pursuits.
Chapter XIII.--Of the Outrages committed by the Pagans against the Christians.
Chapter XIV.--Flight of Athanasius.
Chapter XV.--Martyrs at Merum in Phrygia, under Julian.
Chapter XVI.--Of the Literary Labors of the Two Apollinares and the Emperor's Prohibition of Christians being instructed in Greek Literature.
Chapter XVII.--The Emperor preparing an Expedition against the Persians, arrives at Antioch, and being ridiculed by the Inhabitants, he retorts on them by a Satirical Publication entitled Misopogon, or the Beard-Hater.'
Chapter XVIII.--The Emperor consulting an Oracle, the Demon gives no Response, being awed by the Nearness of Babylas the Martyr.
Chapter XIX.--Wrath of the Emperor, and Firmness of Theodore the Confessor.
Chapter XX.--The Jews instigated by the Emperor attempt to rebuild their Temple, and are frustrated in their Attempt by Miraculous Interposition.
Chapter XXI.--The Emperor's Invasion of Persia, and Death.
Chapter XXII.--Jovian is proclaimed Emperor.
Chapter XXIII.--Refutation of what Libanius the Sophist said concerning Julian.
Chapter XXIV.--The Bishops flock around Jovian, each attempting to draw him to his own Creed.
Chapter XXV.--The Macedonians and Acacians meet at Antioch, and proclaim their Assent to the Nicene Creed.
Chapter XXVI.--Death of the Emperor Jovian.
Chapter I.--After Jovian's Death, Valentinian is proclaimed Emperor,
Chapter II.--Valentinian goes into the West; Valens remains at Constantinople, and grants the Request of the Macedonians to hold a Synod, but persecutes the Adherents of the Homoousion.'
Chapter III.--While Valens persecutes the Orthodox Christians in the East, a Usurper arises at Constantinople named Procopius: and at the Same Time an Earthquake and Inundation take Place and injure Several Cities.
Chapter IV.--The Macedonians hold a Synod at Lampsacus, during a Period of Both Secular and Ecclesiastical Agitation; and after confirming the Antiochian Creed, and anathematizing that promulgated at Ariminum, they again ratify the Deposition of Acacius and Eudoxius.
Chapter V.--Engagement between Valens and Procopius near Nacolia in Phrygia; after which the Usurper is betrayed by his Chief Officers, and with them put to Death.
Chapter VI.--After the Death of Procopius Valens constrains those who composed the Synod, and All Christians, to profess Arianism.
Chapter VII.--Eunomius supersedes Eleusius the Macedonian in the See of Cyzicus, His Origin and Imitation of Aëtius, whose Amanuensis he had been.
Chapter VIII.--Of the Oracle found inscribed an a Stone, when the Walls of Chalcedon were demolished by Order of the Emperor Valens.
Chapter IX.--Valens persecutes the Novatians, because they accepted the Orthodox Faith.
Chapter X.--Birth of Valentinian the Younger.
Chapter XI.--Hail of Extraordinary Size; and Earthquakes in Bithynia and the Hellespont.
Chapter XII.--The Macedonians, pressed by the Emperor's Violence toward them, send a Deputation to Liberius Bishop of Rome, and subscribe the Nicene Creed.
Chapter XIII.--Eunomius separates from Eudoxius; a Disturbance is raised at Alexandria by Eudoxius, and Athanasius flees into Voluntary Exile again, but in Consequence of the Clamors of the People the Emperor recalls and re-establishes him in his See.
Chapter XIV.--The Arians ordain Demophilus after the Death of Eudoxius at Constantinople; but the Orthodox Party constitute Evagrius his Successor.
Chapter XV.--The Emperor banishes Evagrius and Eustathius. The Arians persecute the Orthodox.
Chapter XVI.--Certain Presbyters burnt in a Ship by Order of Valens. Famine in Phrygia.
Chapter XVII.--The Emperor Valens, while at Antioch, again persecutes the Adherents of the Homoousion.'
Chapter XVIII.--Events at Edessa: Constancy of the Devout Citizens, and Courage of a Pious Woman.
Chapter XIX.--Slaughter of Many Persons by Valens an Account of their Names, in Consequence of a Heathen Prediction.
Chapter XX.--Death of Athanasius, and Elevation of Peter to His See.
Chapter XXI.--The Arians are allowed by the Emperor to imprison Peter and to set Lucius over the See of Alexandria.
Chapter XXII.--Silence of Sabinus on the Misdeeds of the Arians; Flight of Peter to Rome; Massacre of the Solitaries at the Instigation of the Arians.
Chapter XXIII.--The Deeds of Some Holy Persons who devoted themselves to a Solitary Life.
Chapter XXIV.--Assault upon the Monks, and Banishment of their Superiors, who exhibit Miraculous Power.
Chapter XXV.--Of Didymus the Blind Man.
Chapter XXVI.--Of Basil of Cæsarea, and Gregory of Nazianzus.
Chapter XXVII.--Of Gregory Thaumaturgus (the Wonder-Worker).
Chapter XXVIII.--Of Novatus and his Followers. The Novatians of Phrygia alter the Time of keeping Easter, following Jewish Usage.
Chapter XXIX.--Damasus ordained Bishop of Rome. Sedition and Loss of Life caused by the Rivalry of Ursinus.
Chapter XXX.--Dissension about a Successor to Auxentius, Bishop of Milan. Ambrose, Governor of the Province, going to appease the Tumult, is by General Consent and with the Approval of the Emperor Valentinian elected to the Bishopric of that Church.
Chapter XXXI.--Death of Valentinian.
Chapter XXXII.--The Emperor Valens, appeased by the Oration of Themistius the Philosopher, abates his Persecution of the Christians.
Chapter XXXIII.--The Goths, under the Reign of Valens, embrace Christianity.
Chapter XXXIV.--Admission of the Fugitive Goths into the Roman Territories, which caused the Emperor's Overthrow, and eventually the Ruin of the Roman Empire.
Chapter XXXV.--Abatement of Persecution against the Christians because of the War with the Goths.
Chapter XXXVI.--The Saracens, under Mavia their Queen, embrace Christianity; and Moses, a Pious Monk, is consecrated their Bishop.
Chapter XXXVII.--After the Departure of Valens from Antioch, the Alexandrians expel Lucius, and restore Peter, who had come with Letters from Damasus Bishop of Rome.
Chapter XXXVIII.--The Emperor Valens is ridiculed by the People on Account of the Goths; undertakes an Expedition against them and is slain in an Engagement near Adrianople.
Chapter I.--After the Death of Valens the Goths again attack Constantinople, and are repulsed by the Citizens, aided by Some Saracen Auxiliaries.
Chapter II.--The Emperor Gratian recalls the Orthodox Bishops, and expels the Heretics from the Churches. He takes Theodosius as his Colleague in the Empire.
Chapter III.--The Principal Bishops who flourished at that Time.
Chapter IV.--The Macedonians, who had subscribed the Homoousian' Doctrine, return to their Former Error.
Chapter V.--Events at Antioch in Connection with Paulinus and Meletius.
Chapter VI.--Gregory of Nazianzus is transferred to the See of Constantinople. The Emperor Theodosius falling Sick at Thessalonica, after his Victory over the Barbarians, is there baptized by Ascholius the Bishop.
Chapter VII.--Gregory, finding Some Dissatisfaction about his Appointment, abdicates the Episcopate of Constantinople. The Emperor orders Demophilus the Arian Bishop either to assent to the Homoousion,' or leave the City. He chooses the Latter.
Chapter VIII.--A Synod consisting of One Hundred and Fifty Bishops meets at Constantinople. The Decrees passed. Ordination of Nectarius.
Chapter IX.--The Body of Paul, Bishop of Constantinople, is honorably transferred from his Place of Exile. Death of Meletius.
Chapter X.--The Emperor orders a Convention composed of All the Various Sects. Arcadius is proclaimed Augustus. The Novatians permitted to hold their Assemblies in the City of Constantinople: Other Heretics driven out.
Chapter XI.--The Emperor Gratian is slain by the Treachery of the Usurper Maximus. From Fear of him Justina ceases persecuting Ambrose.
Chapter XII.--While the Emperor Theodosius is engaged in Military Preparations against Maximus, his Son Honorius is born. He then proceeds to Milan in Order to encounter the Usurper.
Chapter XIII.--The Arians excite a Tumult at Constantinople.
Chapter XIV.--Overthrow and Death of the Usurper Maximus.
Chapter XV.--Of Flavian Bishop of Antioch.
Chapter XVI.--Demolition of the Idolatrous Temples at Alexandria, and the Consequent Conflict between the Pagans and Christians.
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