Of the Anger of God and Man.
There remains one question, and that the last. For some one will perhaps say, that God is so far from being angry, that in His precepts He even forbids man to be angry. I might say that the anger of man ought to be curbed, because he is often angry unjustly; and he has immediate emotion, because he is only for a time. [1772] Therefore, lest those things should be done which the low, and those of moderate station, and great kings do in their anger, his rage ought to have been moderated and suppressed, lest, being out of his mind, [1773] he should commit some inexpiable crime. But God is not angry for a short time, [1774] because He is eternal and of perfect virtue, and He is never angry unless deservedly. But, however, the matter is not so; for if He should altogether prohibit anger, He Himself would have been in some measure the censurer of His own workmanship, since He from the beginning had inserted anger in the liver [1775] of man, since it is believed that the cause of this emotion is contained in the moisture of the gall. Therefore He does not altogether prohibit anger, because that affection is necessarily given, but He forbids us to persevere in anger. For the anger of mortals ought to be mortal; for if it is lasting, enmity is strengthened to lasting destruction. Then, again, when He enjoined us to be angry, and yet not to sin, [1776] it is plain that He did not tear up anger by the roots, but restrained it, that in every correction we might preserve moderation and justice. Therefore He who commands us to be angry is manifestly Himself angry; He who enjoins us to be quickly appeased is manifestly Himself easy to be appeased: for He has enjoined those things which are just and useful for the interests of society. [1777]

But because I had said that the anger of God is not for a time [1778] only, as is the case with man, who becomes inflamed with an immediate [1779] excitement, and on account of his frailty is unable easily to govern himself, we ought to understand that because God is eternal, His anger also remains to eternity; but, on the other hand, that because He is endued with the greatest excellence, He controls His anger, and is not ruled by it, but that He regulates it according to His will. And it is plain that this is not opposed to that which has just been said. For if His anger had been altogether immortal, there would be no place after a fault for satisfaction or kind feeling, though He Himself commands men to be reconciled before the setting of the sun. [1780] But the divine anger remains for ever against those who ever sin. Therefore God is appeased not by incense or a victim, not by costly offerings, which things are all corruptible, but by a reformation of the morals: and he who ceases to sin renders the anger of God mortal. For this reason He does not immediately [1781] punish every one who is guilty, that man may have the opportunity of coming to a right mind, [1782] and correcting himself.


[1772] Temporalis.

[1773] Mentis impos, i.e., not having possession of his mind, opposed to "mentis compos." Some editions add, "in bile."

[1774] Ad præsens.

[1775] As supposed to be the seat of the passions.

[1776] [Psalm 4:4, Vulgate, and Ephes., as below.]

[1777] Rebus communibus.

[1778] Temporalem.

[1779] Præsentaneâ. The word is applied to a remedy which operates instantaneously.

[1780] See Ephesians 4:26.

[1781] Ad præsens.

[1782] Resipiscendi.

chap xx of offences and the
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