Romans 8:20
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
For the creation was subjected to futility, not willingly, but because of him who subjected it, in hope

King James Bible
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope,

American Standard Version
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of him who subjected it, in hope

Douay-Rheims Bible
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him that made it subject, in hope:

English Revised Version
For the creation was subjected to vanity, not of its own will, but by reason of him who subjected it, in hope

Webster's Bible Translation
For the creature was made subject to vanity, not willingly, but by reason of him who hath subjected the same in hope:

Weymouth New Testament
For the Creation fell into subjection to failure and unreality (not of its own choice, but by the will of Him who so subjected it)

Romans 8:20 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Vanity (ματαιότητι)

Only here, Ephesians 4:17; 2 Peter 2:18. Compare the kindred verb became vain (Romans 1:21 note), and the adjective vain (1 Corinthians 3:20; 1 Peter 1:18). Vain is also used to render κενός (1 Corinthians 15:14, 1 Corinthians 15:58; Ephesians 5:6; James 2:20). Κενός signifies empty; μάταιος idle, resultless. Κενός, used of persons, implies not merely the absence of good, but the presence of evil. So James 2:20. The Greek proverb runs. "The empty think empty things." Μάταιος expresses aimlessness. All which has not God for the true end of its being is μάταιος. Pindar describes the vain man as one who hunts bootless things with fruitless hopes. Plato ("Laws," 735) of labor to no purpose. Ezekiel 13:6, "prophesying vain things (μάταια)," things which God will not bring to pass. Compare Titus 3:9. Here, therefore, the reference is to a perishable and decaying condition, separate from God, and pursuing false ends.

By reason of Him who hath subjected (διὰ τὸν ὑποτάξαντα)

God, not Adam nor Satan. Paul does not use the grammatical form which would express the direct agency of God, by Him who hath subjected, but that which makes God's will the occasion rather than the worker - on account of Him. Adam's sin and not God's will was the direct and special cause of the subjection to vanity. The supreme will of God is thus removed "to a wider distance from corruption and vanity" (Alford).

Romans 8:20 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the creature.

Romans 8:22 For we know that the whole creation groans and travails in pain together until now.

Genesis 3:17-19 And to Adam he said, Because you have listened to the voice of your wife, and have eaten of the tree, of which I commanded you, saying...

Genesis 5:29 And he called his name Noah, saying, This same shall comfort us concerning our work and toil of our hands...

Genesis 6:13 And God said to Noah, The end of all flesh is come before me; for the earth is filled with violence through them; and, behold...

Job 12:6-10 The tabernacles of robbers prosper, and they that provoke God are secure; into whose hand God brings abundantly...

Isaiah 24:5,6 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance...

Jeremiah 12:4,11 How long shall the land mourn, and the herbs of every field wither, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein...

Jeremiah 14:5,6 Yes, the hind also calved in the field, and forsook it, because there was no grass...

Hosea 4:3 Therefore shall the land mourn, and every one that dwells therein shall languish, with the beasts of the field...

Joel 1:18 How do the beasts groan! the herds of cattle are perplexed, because they have no pasture; yes, the flocks of sheep are made desolate.

Cross References
Genesis 3:17
And to Adam he said, "Because you have listened to the voice of your wife and have eaten of the tree of which I commanded you, 'You shall not eat of it,' cursed is the ground because of you; in pain you shall eat of it all the days of your life;

Genesis 5:29
and called his name Noah, saying, "Out of the ground that the LORD has cursed, this one shall bring us relief from our work and from the painful toil of our hands."

Psalm 39:5
Behold, you have made my days a few handbreadths, and my lifetime is as nothing before you. Surely all mankind stands as a mere breath! Selah

Ecclesiastes 1:2
Vanity of vanities, says the Preacher, vanity of vanities! All is vanity.

Romans 8:24
For in this hope we were saved. Now hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for what he sees?

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