Romans 8:15
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
For you did not receive the spirit of slavery to fall back into fear, but you have received the Spirit of adoption as sons, by whom we cry, “Abba! Father!”

King James Bible
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

American Standard Version
For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

Douay-Rheims Bible
For you have not received the spirit of bondage again in fear; but you have received the spirit of adoption of sons, whereby we cry: Abba (Father).

English Revised Version
For ye received not the spirit of bondage again unto fear; but ye received the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father.

Webster's Bible Translation
For ye have not received the spirit of bondage again to fear; but ye have received the Spirit of adoption, by which we cry, Abba, Father.

Weymouth New Testament
You have not for the second time acquired the consciousness of being--a consciousness which fills you with terror. But you have acquired a deep inward conviction of having been adopted as sons--a conviction which prompts us to cry aloud, "Abba! our Father!"

Romans 8:15 Parallel
Commentary
Vincent's Word Studies

Spirit of bondage (πνεῦμα δουλείας)

The Holy Spirit, as in Spirit of adoption. The Spirit which ye received was not a spirit of bondage. See Romans 8:4, under πνεῦμα, 7.

Spirit of adoption (πνεῦμα υἱοθεσίας)

The Spirit of God, producing the condition of adoption. Ὑιοθεσία adoption, is from υἱός son, and θέσις a setting or placing: the placing one in the position of a son. Mr. Merivale, illustrating Paul's acquaintance with Roman law, says: "The process of legal adoption by which the chosen heir became entitled not only to the reversion of the property but to the civil status, to the burdens as well as the rights of the adopter - became, as it were, his other self, one with him... this too is a Roman principle, peculiar at this time to the Romans, unknown, I believe, to the Greeks, unknown, to all appearance, to the Jews, as it certainly is not found in the legislation of Moses, nor mentioned anywhere as a usage among the children of the covenant. We have but a faint conception of the force with which such an illustration would speak to one familiar with the Roman practice; how it would serve to impress upon him the assurance that the adopted son of God becomes, in a peculiar and intimate sense, one with the heavenly Father" ("Conversion of the Roman Empire").

We cry (κράζομεν)

Of a loud cry or vociferation; expressing deep emotion.

Abba (Ἁββᾶ)

Compare Mark 14:36. A Syrian term, to which Paul adds the Greek Father. The repetition is probably from a liturgical formula which may have originated among the Hellenistic Jews who retained the consecrated word Abba. Some find here a hint of the union of Jew and Gentile in God.

Romans 8:15 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

the spirit.

Exodus 20:19 And they said to Moses, Speak you with us, and we will hear: but let not God speak with us, lest we die.

Numbers 17:12 And the children of Israel spoke to Moses, saying, Behold, we die, we perish, we all perish.

Luke 8:28,37 When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, What have I to do with you, Jesus...

John 16:8 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment:

Acts 2:37 Now when they heard this, they were pricked in their heart, and said to Peter and to the rest of the apostles, Men and brothers...

Acts 16:29 Then he called for a light, and sprang in, and came trembling, and fell down before Paul and Silas,

1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God...

2 Timothy 1:7 For God has not given us the spirit of fear; but of power, and of love, and of a sound mind.

Hebrews 2:15 And deliver them who through fear of death were all their lifetime subject to bondage.

Hebrews 12:18-24 For you are not come to the mount that might be touched, and that burned with fire, nor to blackness, and darkness, and tempest...

James 2:19 You believe that there is one God; you do well: the devils also believe, and tremble.

1 John 4:18 There is no fear in love; but perfect love casts out fear: because fear has torment. He that fears is not made perfect in love.

the Spirit.

Romans 8:16 The Spirit itself bears witness with our spirit, that we are the children of God:

Isaiah 56:5 Even to them will I give in my house and within my walls a place and a name better than of sons and of daughters...

Jeremiah 3:19 But I said, How shall I put you among the children, and give you a pleasant land, a goodly heritage of the hosts of nations? and I said...

1 Corinthians 2:12 Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God...

Galatians 4:5-7 To redeem them that were under the law, that we might receive the adoption of sons...

Ephesians 1:5,11-14 Having predestinated us to the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to himself, according to the good pleasure of his will...

Abba.

Mark 14:36 And he said, Abba, Father, all things are possible to you; take away this cup from me: nevertheless not what I will, but what you will.

Luke 11:2 And he said to them, When you pray, say, Our Father which are in heaven, Hallowed be your name. Your kingdom come. Your will be done...

Luke 22:42 Saying, Father, if you be willing, remove this cup from me: nevertheless not my will, but yours, be done.

John 20:17 Jesus said to her, Touch me not; for I am not yet ascended to my Father: but go to my brothers, and say to them, I ascend to my Father...

Cross References
Mark 14:36
And he said, "Abba, Father, all things are possible for you. Remove this cup from me. Yet not what I will, but what you will."

Romans 8:23
And not only the creation, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for adoption as sons, the redemption of our bodies.

Romans 8:26
Likewise the Spirit helps us in our weakness. For we do not know what to pray for as we ought, but the Spirit himself intercedes for us with groanings too deep for words.

Romans 9:4
They are Israelites, and to them belong the adoption, the glory, the covenants, the giving of the law, the worship, and the promises.

1 Corinthians 2:12
Now we have received not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, that we might understand the things freely given us by God.

2 Corinthians 11:4
For if someone comes and proclaims another Jesus than the one we proclaimed, or if you receive a different spirit from the one you received, or if you accept a different gospel from the one you accepted, you put up with it readily enough.

Galatians 2:4
Yet because of false brothers secretly brought in--who slipped in to spy out our freedom that we have in Christ Jesus, so that they might bring us into slavery--

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