Job 31:24
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
“If I have made gold my trust or called fine gold my confidence,

King James Bible
If I have made gold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence;

American Standard Version
If I have made gold my hope, And have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence;

Douay-Rheims Bible
If I have thought gold my strength, and have said to fine gold: My confidence:

English Revised Version
If I have made gold my hope, and have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence;

Webster's Bible Translation
If I have made gold my hope, or have said to the fine gold, Thou art my confidence;

Job 31:24 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

16 If I held back the poor from what they desired,

And caused the eyes of the widow to languish,

17 And ate my morsel alone

Without letting the fatherless eat thereof: -

18 No indeed, from my youth he grew up to me as to a father,

And from my mother's womb I guided her -

The whole strophe is the hypothetical antecedent of the imprecative conclusion, Job 31:22, which closes the following strophe. Since מנע דּבר ממּנוּ, cohibere aliquid ab aliquo (Job 22:7), is said as much in accordance with the usage of the language as מנעו מדּבר, cohibere aliquem ab aliquo (Numbers 24:11; Ecclesiastes 2:10), in the sense of denegare alicui aliquid, there is no reason for taking מחפץ דּלּים together as a genitival clause (a voto tenuium), as the accentuation requires it. On חפץ, vid., on Job 21:21; it signifies solicitude (what is ardently desired) and business, here the former: what is ever the interest and want of the poor (the reduced or those without means). From such like things he does not keep the poor back, i.e., does not refuse them; and the eyes of the widow he did not cause or allow to languish (כּלּה, to bring to an end, i.e., cause to languish, of the eyes, as Leviticus 26:16; 1 Samuel 2:33); he let not their longing for assistance be consumed of itself, let not the fountain of their tears become dry without effect. If he had done the opposite, if he had eaten his bread (פּת equals פּת לחם) alone, and not allowed the orphan to eat of it with him - but no, he had not acted thus; on the contrary (כּי as Psalm 130:4 and frequently), he (the parentless one) grew up to him (גּדלני equals גּדל לּי, Ges. 121, 4, according to Ew. 315, b, "by the interweaving of the dialects of the people into the ancient form of the declining language;" perhaps it is more correct to say it is by virtue of a poetic, forced, and rare brevity of expression) as to a father ( equals לאב כּמו), and from his mother's womb he guided her, the helpless and defenceless widow, like a faithful child leading its sick or aged mother. The hyperbolical expression מבּטן אמּי dates this sympathizing and active charity back to the very beginning of Job's life. He means to say that it is in-born to him, and he has exercised it ever since he was first able to do so. The brevity of the form גּדלני, brief to incorrectness, might be removed by the pointing גּדּלני (Olsh.): from my youth up he (the fatherless one) honoured me as a father; and גּדּלני (instead of כּבּדני would be explained by the consideration, that a veneration is meant that attributed a dignity which exceed his age to the נער who was not yet old enough to be a father. But גּדּל signifies "to cause to grow" in such a connection elsewhere (parall. רומם, to raise), wherefore lxx translates ἐξέτρεφον (גּדּלתּי); and גּדלני has similar examples of the construction of intransitives with the acc. instead of the dat. (especially Zechariah 7:5) in its favour: they became me great, i.e., became great in respect of me. Other ways of getting over the difficulty are hardly worth mentioning: the Syriac version reads כּאב (pain) and אנחות; Raschi makes Job 31:18, the idea of benevolence, the subj., and Job 31:18 (as מדּה, attribute) the obj. The suff. of אנחנּה Schlottm. refers to the female orphan; but Job refers again to the orphan in the following strophe, and the reference to the widow, more natural here on account of the gender, has nothing against it. The choice of the verb (comp. Job 38:32) also corresponds to such a reference, since the Hiph. has an intensified Kal-signification here.

(Note: זכר and הזכיר, to remember; זרע and הזריע, to sow, to cover with seed; חרשׁ and החרישׁ, both in the signification silere and fabricari; לעג and הלעיג, to mock, Job 21:3; משׁל and המשׁיל, dominari, Job 25:2; נטה and הטה, to extend, to bow; קנה ;w and הקנה (to obtain by purchase); קצר and הקציר, to reap, Job 24:6, are all similar. In Arab. the Kal nahaituhu signifies I put him aside by going on one side (nahw or nâhije), the Hiph. anhaituhu, I put him aside by bringing him to the side (comp. ינחם, Job 12:23).)

From earliest youth, so far back as he can remember, he was wont to behave like a father to the orphan, and like a child to the widow.

Job 31:24 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Genesis 31:1 And he heard the words of Laban's sons, saying, Jacob has taken away all that was our father's...

Deuteronomy 8:12-14 Lest when you have eaten and are full, and have built goodly houses, and dwelled therein...

Psalm 49:6,7,17 They that trust in their wealth, and boast themselves in the multitude of their riches...

Psalm 52:7 See, this is the man that made not God his strength; but trusted in the abundance of his riches...

Psalm 62:10 Trust not in oppression, and become not vain in robbery: if riches increase, set not your heart on them.

Proverbs 10:15 The rich man's wealth is his strong city: the destruction of the poor is their poverty.

Proverbs 11:28 He that trusts in his riches shall fall; but the righteous shall flourish as a branch.

Proverbs 30:9 Lest I be full, and deny you, and say, Who is the LORD? or lest I be poor, and steal, and take the name of my God in vain.

Mark 10:24 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answers again, and said to them, Children...

Luke 12:15 And he said to them, Take heed, and beware of covetousness...

Colossians 3:5 Mortify therefore your members which are on the earth; fornication, uncleanness, inordinate affection, evil concupiscence...

1 Timothy 6:10,17 For the love of money is the root of all evil: which while some coveted after, they have erred from the faith...

Cross References
Mark 10:23
And Jesus looked around and said to his disciples, "How difficult it will be for those who have wealth to enter the kingdom of God!"

Job 22:24
if you lay gold in the dust, and gold of Ophir among the stones of the torrent-bed,

Psalm 49:6
those who trust in their wealth and boast of the abundance of their riches?

Proverbs 10:15
A rich man's wealth is his strong city; the poverty of the poor is their ruin.

Jeremiah 9:23
Thus says the LORD: "Let not the wise man boast in his wisdom, let not the mighty man boast in his might, let not the rich man boast in his riches,

Ezekiel 28:5
by your great wisdom in your trade you have increased your wealth, and your heart has become proud in your wealth--

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