Job 26:13
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
By his wind the heavens were made fair; his hand pierced the fleeing serpent.

King James Bible
By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

American Standard Version
By his Spirit the heavens are garnished; His hand hath pierced the swift serpent.

Douay-Rheims Bible
His spirit hath adorned the heavens, and his obstetric hand brought forth the winding serpent.

English Revised Version
By his spirit the heavens are garnished; his hand hath pierced the swift serpent.

Webster's Bible Translation
By his spirit he hath garnished the heavens; his hand hath formed the crooked serpent.

Job 26:13 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

By צפון many modern expositors understand the northern part of the earth, where the highest mountains and rocks rise aloft (accordingly, in Isaiah 14:13, ירכתי צפון are mentioned parallel with the starry heights), and consequently the earth is the heaviest (Hirz., Ew., Hlgst., Welte, Schlottm., and others). But (1) it is not probable that the poet would first have mentioned the northern part of the earth, and then in Job 26:7 the earth itself - first the part, and then the whole; (2) נטה is never said of the earth, always of the heavens, for the expansion of which it is the stereotype word (נטה, Job 9:8; Isaiah 40:22; Isaiah 44:24; Isaiah 51:13; Zechariah 14:1; Psalm 104:2; נוטיהם, Isaiah 42:5; נטה, Jeremiah 10:12; Jeremiah 51:15; ידי נטו, Isaiah 45:12); (3) one expects some mention of the sky in connection with the mention of the earth; and thus is צפון,

(Note: The name צפון signifies the northern sky as it appears by day, from its beclouded side in contrast with the brighter and more rainless south; comp. old Persian apâkhtara, if this name of the north really denotes the "starless" region, Greek ζόφος, the north-west, from the root skap, σκεπᾶν, σκεπανός (Curtius, Griech. Etymologie, ii. 274), aquilo, the north wind, as that which brings black clouds with it.)

with Rosenm., Ges., Umbr., Vaih., Hahn, and Olsh., to be understood of the northern sky, which is prominently mentioned, because there is the pole of the vault of heaven, which is marked by the Pole-star, there the constellation of the greater Bear (עשׁ, Job 9:9) formed by the seven bright stars, there (in the back of the bull, one of the northern constellations of the ecliptic) the group of the Pleiades (כּימה), there also, below the bull and the twins, Orion (כּסיל). On the derivation, notion, and synonyms of תּהוּ, vid., Genesis, S. 93; here (where it may be compared with the Arab. theı̂j-un, empty, and tı̂h, desert) it signifies nothing more than the unmeasurable vacuum of space, parall. בּלימה, not anything equals nothing (comp. modern Arabic lâsh, or even mâsh, compounded of Arab. lâ or mâ and šâ, a thing, e.g., bilâs, for nothing, ragul mâsh, useless men). The sky which vaults the earth from the arctic pole, and the earth itself, hang free without support in space. That which is elsewhere (e.g., Job 9:6) said of the pillars and foundations of the earth, is intended of the internal support of the body of the earth, which is, as it were, fastened together by the mountains, with their roots extending into the innermost part of the earth; for the idea that the earth rests upon the bases of the mountains would be, indeed, as Lwenthal correctly observes, an absurd inversion. On the other side, we are also not justified in inferring from Job's expression the laws of the mechanism of the heavens, which were unknown to the ancients, especially the law of attraction or gravitation. The knowledge of nature on the part of the Israelitish Chokma, expressed in Job 26:7, however, remains still worthy of respect. On the ground of similar passages of the book of Job, Keppler says of the yet unsolved problems of astronomy: Haec et cetera hujusmodi latent in Pandectis aevi sequentis, non antea discenda, quam librum hunc Deus arbiter seculorum recluserit mortalibus. From the starry heavens and the earth Job turns to the celestial and sub-celestial waters.

Job 26:13 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

his spirit

Genesis 1:2 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was on the face of the deep...

Psalm 33:6,7 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth...

Psalm 104:30 You send forth your spirit, they are created: and you renew the face of the earth.

the crooked serpent

Psalm 74:13,14 You did divide the sea by your strength: you brake the heads of the dragons in the waters...

Isaiah 27:1 In that day the LORD with his sore and great and strong sword shall punish leviathan the piercing serpent...

Revelation 12:9 And the great dragon was cast out, that old serpent, called the Devil, and Satan, which deceives the whole world...

Cross References
Job 9:8
who alone stretched out the heavens and trampled the waves of the sea;

Isaiah 27:1
In that day the LORD with his hard and great and strong sword will punish Leviathan the fleeing serpent, Leviathan the twisting serpent, and he will slay the dragon that is in the sea.

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