Isaiah 48:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Hear this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and who came from the waters of Judah, who swear by the name of the LORD and confess the God of Israel, but not in truth or right.

King James Bible
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah, which swear by the name of the LORD, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness.

American Standard Version
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah; who swear by the name of Jehovah, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness.

Douay-Rheims Bible
HEAR ye these things, O house of Jacob, you that are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Juda, you who swear by the name of the Lord, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in justice.

English Revised Version
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, which are called by the name of Israel, and are come forth out of the waters of Judah; which swear by the name of the LORD, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness.

Webster's Bible Translation
Hear ye this, O house of Jacob, who are called by the name of Israel, and have come forth out of the waters of Judah, who swear by the name of the LORD, and make mention of the God of Israel, but not in truth, nor in righteousness.

Isaiah 48:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

A third strophe of this proclamation of punishment is opened here with ועתה, on the ground of the conduct censured. "And now hear this, thou voluptuous one, she who sitteth so securely, who sayeth in her heart, I am it, and none else: I shall not sit a widow, nor experience bereavement of children. And these two will come upon thee suddenly in one day: bereavement of children and widowhood; they come upon thee in fullest measure, in spite of the multitude of thy sorceries, in spite of the great abundance of thy witchcrafts. Thou trustedst in thy wickedness, saidst, No one seeth me. Thy wisdom and thy knowledge, they led thee astray; so that thou saidst in thy heart, I am it, and none else. And misfortune cometh upon thee, which thou dost not understand how to charm away: and destruction will fall upon thee, which thou canst not atone for; there will come suddenly upon thee ruin which thou suspectest not." In the surnames given to Babylon here, a new reason is assigned for the judgment - namely, extravagance, security, and self-exaltation. עדין is an intensive from of עדן (lxx τρυφερά). The i of אפסי is regarded by Hahn as the same as we meet with in אתּי equals אתּ; but this is impossible here with the first person. Rosenmller, Ewald, Gesenius, and others, take it as chirek compaginis, and equivalent to עוד אין, which would only occur in this particular formula. Hitzig supposes it to be the suffix of the word, which is meant as a preposition in the sense of et praeter me ultra (nemo); but this nemo would be omitted, which is improbable. The more probable explanation is, that אפס signifies absolute non-existence, and when used as an adverb, "exclusively, nothing but," e.g., קצהוּ אפס, nothing, the utmost extremity thereof, i.e., only the utmost extremity of it (Numbers 23:13; cf., Numbers 22:35). But it is mostly used with a verbal force, like אין (אין), (utique) non est (see Isaiah 45:14); hence אפסי, like איני, (utique) non sum. The form in which the presumption of Babylon expresses itself, viz., "I (am it), and I am absolutely nothing further," sounds like self-deification, by the side of similar self-assertion on the part of Jehovah (Isaiah 45:5-6; Isaiah 14:21, Isaiah 14:22 and Isaiah 46:9). Nineveh speaks in just the same way in Zephaniah 2:15; compare Martial: "Terrarum Dea gentiumque Roma cui par est nihil et nihil secundum." Babylon also says still further (like the Babylon of the last days in Revelation 18:7): "I shall not sit as a widow (viz., mourning thus in solitude, Lamentations 1:1; Lamentations 3:28; and secluded from the world, Genesis 38:11), nor experience the loss of children" (orbitatem). She would become a widow, if she should lose the different nations, and "the kings of the earth who committed fornication with her" (Revelation 18:9); for her relation to her own king cannot possibly be thought of, inasmuch as the relation in which a nation stands to its temporal king is never thought of as marriage, like that of Jehovah to Israel. She would also be a mother bereaved of her children, if war and captivity robbed her of her population. But both of these would happen to her suddenly in one day, so that she would succumb to the weight of the double sorrow. Both of them would come upon her kethummâm (secundum integritatem eorum), i.e., so that she would come to learn what the loss of men and the loss of children signified in all its extent and in all its depth, and that in spite of (בּ, with, equivalent to "notwithstanding," as in Isaiah 5:25; not "through equals on account of," since this tone is adopted for the first time in Isaiah 47:10) the multitude of its incantations, and the very great mass (‛ŏtsmâh, an inf. noun, as in Isaiah 30:19; Isaiah 55:2, used here, not as in Isaiah 40:29, in an intensive sense, but, like ‛âtsūm, as a parallel word to rabh in a numerical sense) of its witchcrafts (chebher, binding by means of incantations, κατάδεσμος). Babylonia was the birth-place of astrology, from which sprang the twelve-fold division of the day, the horoscope and sun-dial (Herod. ii. 109); but it was also the home of magic, which pretended to bind the course of events, and even the power of the gods, and to direct them in whatever way it pleased (Diodorus, ii. 29). Thus had Babylon trusted in her wickedness (Isaiah 13:11), viz., in the tyranny and cunning by which she hoped to ensure perpetual duration, with the notion that she was exalted above the reach of any earthly calamity.

She thought, "None seeth me" (non est videns me), thus suppressing the voice of conscience, and practically denying the omnipotence and omnipresence of God. ראני (with a verbal suffix, videns me, whereas ראי saere in Genesis 16:3 signifies videns mei equals meus), also written ראני, is a pausal form in half pause for ראני (Isaiah 29:15). Tzere passes in pause both into pathach (e.g., Isaiah 42:22), and also, apart from such hithpael forms as Isaiah 41:16, into kametz, as in קימנוּ (Job 22:20, which see). By the "wisdom and knowledge" of Babylon, which had turned her aside from the right way, we are to understand her policy, strategy, and more especially her magical arts, i.e., the mysteries of the Chaldeans, their ἐπιχώριοι φιλόσοφοι (Strabo, xxi. 1, 6). On hōvâh (used here and in Ezekiel 7:26, written havvâh elsewhere), according to its primary meaning, "yawning," χαῖνον, then a yawning depth, χάσμα, utter destruction, see at Job 37:6. שׁאה signifies primarily a desert, or desolate place, here destruction; and hence the derivative meaning, waste noise, a dull groan. The perfect consec. of the first clause precedes its predicate רעה in the radical form בא (Ges., 147, a). With the parallelism of כּפּרהּ, it is not probable that שׁחרהּ, which rhymes with it, is a substantive, in the sense of "from which thou wilt experience no morning dawn" (i.e., after the night of calamity), as Umbreit supposes. The suffix also causes some difficulty (hence the Vulgate rendering, ortum ejus, sc. mali); and instead of תדעי, we should expect תראי. In any case, shachrâh is a verb, and Hitzig renders it, "which thou wilt not know how to unblacken;" but this privative use of shichēr as a word of colour would be without example. It would be better to translate it, "which thou wilt not know how to spy out" (as in Isaiah 26:9), but better still, "which thou wilt not know how to conjure away" (shichēr equals Arab. sḥḥr, as it were incantitare, and here incantando averruncare). The last relative clause affirms what shachrâh would state, if understood according to Isaiah 26:9 : destruction which thou wilt not know, i.e., which will come suddenly and unexpectedly.

Isaiah 48:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

which are

Genesis 32:28 And he said, Your name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel: for as a prince have you power with God and with men...

Genesis 35:10 And God said to him, Your name is Jacob: your name shall not be called any more Jacob, but Israel shall be your name...

2 Kings 17:34 To this day they do after the former manners: they fear not the LORD, neither do they after their statutes, or after their ordinances...

John 1:47 Jesus saw Nathanael coming to him, and said of him, Behold an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile!

Romans 2:17,28,29 Behold, you are called a Jew, and rest in the law, and make your boast of God...

Romans 9:6,8 Not as though the word of God has taken none effect. For they are not all Israel, which are of Israel...

Revelation 2:9 I know your works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but you are rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews...

Revelation 3:9 Behold, I will make them of the synagogue of Satan, which say they are Jews, and are not, but do lie; behold...

come

Numbers 24:7 He shall pour the water out of his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters, and his king shall be higher than Agag...

Deuteronomy 33:28 Israel then shall dwell in safety alone: the fountain of Jacob shall be on a land of corn and wine...

Psalm 68:26 Bless you God in the congregations, even the Lord, from the fountain of Israel.

Proverbs 5:16 Let your fountains be dispersed abroad, and rivers of waters in the streets.

which swear

Isaiah 44:5 One shall say, I am the LORD's; and another shall call himself by the name of Jacob...

Isaiah 45:23 I have sworn by myself, the word is gone out of my mouth in righteousness, and shall not return, That to me every knee shall bow...

Isaiah 65:16 That he who blesses himself in the earth shall bless himself in the God of truth...

Deuteronomy 5:28 And the LORD heard the voice of your words, when you spoke to me; and the LORD said to me...

Deuteronomy 6:13 You shall fear the LORD your God, and serve him, and shall swear by his name.

Deuteronomy 10:20 You shall fear the LORD your God; him shall you serve, and to him shall you hold, and swear by his name.

Psalm 63:11 But the king shall rejoice in God; every one that swears by him shall glory: but the mouth of them that speak lies shall be stopped.

Zephaniah 1:5 And them that worship the host of heaven on the housetops; and them that worship and that swear by the LORD, and that swear by Malcham;

make mention

Isaiah 26:13 O LORD our God, other lords beside you have had dominion over us: but by you only will we make mention of your name.

Isaiah 62:8 The LORD has sworn by his right hand, and by the arm of his strength, Surely I will no more give your corn to be meat for your enemies...

Exodus 23:13 And in all things that I have said to you be circumspect: and make no mention of the name of other gods...

not in truth

Isaiah 1:10-14 Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; give ear to the law of our God, you people of Gomorrah...

Leviticus 19:12 And you shall not swear by my name falsely, neither shall you profane the name of your God: I am the LORD.

Psalm 50:16-20 But to the wicked God said, What have you to do to declare my statutes, or that you should take my covenant in your mouth...

Psalm 66:3 Say to God, How terrible are you in your works! through the greatness of your power shall your enemies submit themselves to you.

Jeremiah 4:2 And you shall swear, The LORD lives, in truth, in judgment, and in righteousness; and the nations shall bless themselves in him...

Jeremiah 5:2 And though they say, The LORD lives; surely they swear falsely.

Jeremiah 7:9,10 Will you steal, murder, and commit adultery, and swear falsely, and burn incense to Baal, and walk after other gods whom you know not...

Malachi 3:5 And I will come near to you to judgment; and I will be a swift witness against the sorcerers, and against the adulterers...

Matthew 15:8,9 This people draws near to me with their mouth, and honors me with their lips; but their heart is far from me...

Matthew 23:14 Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites! for you devour widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayer...

John 4:24 God is a Spirit: and they that worship him must worship him in spirit and in truth.

1 Timothy 4:2 Speaking lies in hypocrisy; having their conscience seared with a hot iron;

2 Timothy 3:2-5 For men shall be lovers of their own selves, covetous, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy...

Cross References
Numbers 24:7
Water shall flow from his buckets, and his seed shall be in many waters; his king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted.

Deuteronomy 6:13
It is the LORD your God you shall fear. Him you shall serve and by his name you shall swear.

Deuteronomy 33:28
So Israel lived in safety, Jacob lived alone, in a land of grain and wine, whose heavens drop down dew.

Psalm 68:26
"Bless God in the great congregation, the LORD, O you who are of Israel's fountain!"

Isaiah 45:23
By myself I have sworn; from my mouth has gone out in righteousness a word that shall not return: 'To me every knee shall bow, every tongue shall swear allegiance.'

Isaiah 46:12
"Listen to me, you stubborn of heart, you who are far from righteousness:

Isaiah 58:2
Yet they seek me daily and delight to know my ways, as if they were a nation that did righteousness and did not forsake the judgment of their God; they ask of me righteous judgments; they delight to draw near to God.

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