Isaiah 4:4
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion and cleansed the bloodstains of Jerusalem from its midst by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning.

King James Bible
When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

American Standard Version
when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of justice, and by the spirit of burning.

Douay-Rheims Bible
If the Lord shall wash away the filth of the daughters of Sion, and shall wash away the blood of Jerusalem out of the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

English Revised Version
when the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst thereof, by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

Webster's Bible Translation
When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst of it by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

Isaiah 4:4 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

When Jehovah took away all this glory, with which the women of Jerusalem were adorned, they would be turned into wretched-looking prisoners, disfigured by ill-treatment and dirt. - "And instead of balmy scent there will be mouldiness, and instead of the sash a rope, and instead of artistic ringlets a baldness, and instead of the dress-cloak a frock of sackcloth, branding instead of beauty." Mouldiness, or mother (mak, as in Isaiah 5:24, the dust of things that have moulded away), with which they would be covered, and which they would be obliged to breathe, would take the place of the bosem, i.e., the scent of the balsam shrub (bâsâm), and of sweet-scented pomade in general; and nipâh that of the beautifully embroidered girdle (Proverbs 31:24). The meaning of this word is neither "a wound," as the Targums and Talmud render it, nor "rags," as given by Knobel, ed. 1((from nâkaph, percutere, perforare), but the rope thrown over them as prisoners (from kâphâh equals kâvâh, Contorquere: lxx, Vulg., Syr.).

(Note: Credner (Joel, p. 147) renders the word "tatters," from nâkaph, to rub in pieces; but the word has no such meaning, whereas the meaning vulnus, lit., percussio, is admissible (see at Job 19:26), but does not suit the antithesis. Luzzatto connects it with n'kaph, to bind (from which the makkeph derives its name), and understands it as referring to the dressing applied to wounds, to lint into which the girdle was torn. The most plausible derivation is from kâphâh, which is really employed in post-biblical usage to signify not only to congeal and wrinkle, but also to thicken (Sabbath 21a, l'hakpoth: "Make the wick thicker, that it may burn the brighter"). It is probably radically akin to the Arabic nukbe (explained in Lamachzari as equivalent to the Persian mijân-bend, a girdle), which is apparently used to denote the coarse girdle worn by peasants or by Arab women of the wandering tribes, resembling a rope of goat's hair, as distinguished from the artistic and costly girdle worn by women of the upper classes in the towns.)

Baldness takes the place of artistic ringlets (מקשׁה מעשׂה, not מעשׂה, so that it is in apposition: cf., Isaiah 30:20; Ges. 113; Ewald, 287, b). The reference is not to golden ornaments for the head, as the Sept. rendering gives it, although miksheh is used elsewhere to signify embossed or carved work in metal or wood; but here we are evidently to understand by the "artificial twists" either curls made with the curling-tongs, or the hair plaited and twisted up in knots, which they would be obliged to cut off in accordance with the mourning customs (Isaiah 15:2; Isaiah 22:12), or which would fall off in consequence of grief. A frock of sackcloth (machagoreth sak), i.e., a smock of coarse haircloth worn next to the skin, such as Layard found depicted upon a bas-relief at Kouyunjik, would take the place of the pethigil, i.e., the dress-cloak (either from pâthag, to be wide or full, with the substantive termination ı̄l, or else composed of pethi, breadth, and gil, festive rejoicing); and branding the place of beauty. Branding (Ci equals Cevi, from Câvâh, καἰειν), the mark burnt upon the forehead by their conquerors: Ci is a substantive,

(Note: It is so understood in b. Sabbath 62b, with an allusion to the proverb, "The end of beauty is burning" (viz., inflammation). In Arabia, the application of the Cey with a red-hot iron (mikwâh) plays a very important part in the medical treatment of both man and beast. You meet with many men who have been burned not only on their legs and arms, but in their faces as well, and, as a rule, the finest horses are disfigured by the Cey. - Wetzstein.)

not a particle, as the Targum and others render it, and as the makkeph might make it appear. There is something very effective in the inverted order of the words in the last clause of the five. In this five-fold reverse would shame and mourning take the place of proud, voluptuous rejoicing.

Isaiah 4:4 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

washed away

Isaiah 3:16 Moreover the LORD said, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes...

Lamentations 1:9 Her filthiness is in her skirts; she remembers not her last end; therefore she came down wonderfully: she had no comforter. O LORD...

Ezekiel 16:6-9 And when I passed by you, and saw you polluted in your own blood, I said to you when you were in your blood, Live; yes...

Ezekiel 22:15 And I will scatter you among the heathen, and disperse you in the countries, and will consume your filthiness out of you.

Ezekiel 36:25,29 Then will I sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean: from all your filthiness, and from all your idols, will I cleanse you...

Joel 3:21 For I will cleanse their blood that I have not cleansed: for the LORD dwells in Zion.

Zephaniah 3:1 Woe to her that is filthy and polluted, to the oppressing city!

Zechariah 3:3,4 Now Joshua was clothed with filthy garments, and stood before the angel...

Zechariah 13:1,9 In that day there shall be a fountain opened to the house of David and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem for sin and for uncleanness...

Malachi 3:2,3 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appears? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap...

have purged

Isaiah 26:20,21 Come, my people, enter you into your chambers, and shut your doors about you: hide yourself as it were for a little moment...

Ezekiel 24:7-14 For her blood is in the middle of her; she set it on the top of a rock; she poured it not on the ground, to cover it with dust...

Matthew 23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, you that kill the prophets, and stone them which are sent to you...

by the spirit

Isaiah 9:5 For every battle of the warrior is with confused noise, and garments rolled in blood; but this shall be with burning and fuel of fire.

Ezekiel 22:18-22 Son of man, the house of Israel is to me become dross: all they are brass, and tin, and iron, and lead, in the middle of the furnace...

Malachi 3:2,3 But who may abide the day of his coming? and who shall stand when he appears? for he is like a refiner's fire, and like fullers' soap...

Malachi 4:1 For, behold, the day comes, that shall burn as an oven; and all the proud, yes, and all that do wickedly...

Matthew 3:11,12 I indeed baptize you with water to repentance. but he that comes after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear...

John 16:8-11 And when he is come, he will reprove the world of sin, and of righteousness, and of judgment...

Cross References
Matthew 3:11
"I baptize you with water for repentance, but he who is coming after me is mightier than I, whose sandals I am not worthy to carry. He will baptize you with the Holy Spirit and fire.

Psalm 51:2
Wash me thoroughly from my iniquity, and cleanse me from my sin!

Song of Solomon 3:11
Go out, O daughters of Zion, and look upon King Solomon, with the crown with which his mother crowned him on the day of his wedding, on the day of the gladness of his heart.

Isaiah 1:15
When you spread out your hands, I will hide my eyes from you; even though you make many prayers, I will not listen; your hands are full of blood.

Isaiah 1:31
And the strong shall become tinder, and his work a spark, and both of them shall burn together, with none to quench them.

Isaiah 3:16
The LORD said: Because the daughters of Zion are haughty and walk with outstretched necks, glancing wantonly with their eyes, mincing along as they go, tinkling with their feet,

Isaiah 9:19
Through the wrath of the LORD of hosts the land is scorched, and the people are like fuel for the fire; no one spares another.

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