Genesis 2:1
Parallel Verses
English Standard Version
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

King James Bible
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

American Standard Version
And the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Douay-Rheims Bible
So the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the furniture of them.

English Revised Version
And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Webster's Bible Translation
Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.

Genesis 2:1 Parallel
Commentary
Keil and Delitzsch Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament

The Sabbath of Creation. - "Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the host of them." צבא here denotes the totality of the beings that fill the heaven and the earth: in other places (see especially Nehemiah 9:6) it is applied to the host of heaven, i.e., the stars (Deuteronomy 4:19; Deuteronomy 17:3), and according to a still later representation, to the angels also (1 Kings 22:19; Isaiah 24:21; Nehemiah 9:6; Psalm 148:2). These words of Genesis 2:1 introduce the completion of the work of creation, and give a greater definiteness to the announcement in Genesis 2:2, Genesis 2:3, that on the seventh day God ended the work which He had made, by ceasing to create, and blessing the day and sanctifying it. The completion or finishing (כּלּה) of the work of creation on the seventh day (not on the sixth, as the lxx, Sam., and Syr. erroneously render it) can only be understood by regarding the clauses Genesis 2:2 and Genesis 2:3, which are connected with ויכל by ו consec. as containing the actual completion, i.e., by supposing the completion to consist, negatively in the cessation of the work of creation, and positively in the blessing and sanctifying of the seventh day. The cessation itself formed part of the completion of the work (for this meaning of שׁבת vid., Genesis 8:22; Job 32:1, etc.). As a human artificer completes his work just when he has brought it up to his ideal and ceases to work upon it, so in an infinitely higher sense, God completed the creation of the world with all its inhabitants by ceasing to produce anything new, and entering into the rest of His all-sufficient eternal Being, from which He had come forth, as it were, at and in the creation of a world distinct from His own essence. Hence ceasing to create is called resting (נוּח) in Exodus 20:11, and being refreshed (ינּפשׁ) in Exodus 31:17. The rest into which God entered after the creation was complete, had its own reality "in the reality of the work of creation, in contrast with which the preservation of the world, when once created, had the appearance of rest, though really a continuous creation" (Ziegler, p. 27). This rest of the Creator was indeed "the consequence of His self-satisfaction in the now united and harmonious, though manifold whole;" but this self-satisfaction of God in His creation, which we call His pleasure in His work, was also a spiritual power, which streamed forth as a blessing upon the creation itself, bringing it into the blessedness of the rest of God and filling it with His peace. This constitutes the positive element in the completion which God gave to the work of creation, by blessing and sanctifying the seventh day, because on it He found rest from the work which He by making (לעשׂות faciendo: cf. Ewald, 280d) had created. The divine act of blessing was a real communication of powers of salvation, grace, and peace; and sanctifying was not merely declaring holy, but "communicating the attribute of holy," "placing in a living relation to God, the Holy One, raising to a participation in the pure clear light of the holiness of God." On קדושׁ see Exodus 19:6. The blessing and sanctifying of the seventh day had regard, no doubt, to the Sabbath, which Israel as the people of God was afterwards to keep; but we are not to suppose that the theocratic Sabbath was instituted here, or that the institution of that Sabbath was transferred to the history of the creation. On the contrary, the Sabbath of the Israelites had a deeper meaning, founded in the nature and development of the created world, not for Israel only, but for all mankind, or rather for the whole creation. As the whole earthly creation is subject to the changes of time and the law of temporal motion and development; so all creatures not only stand in need of definite recurring periods of rest, for the sake of recruiting their strength and gaining new power for further development, but they also look forward to a time when all restlessness shall give place to the blessed rest of the perfect consummation. To this rest the resting of God (ἡ κατάπαυσις) points forward; and to this rest, this divine σαββατισός (Hebrews 4:9), shall the whole world, especially man, the head of the earthly creation, eventually come. For this God ended His work by blessing and sanctifying the day when the whole creation was complete. In connection with Hebrews 4, some of the fathers have called attention to the fact, that the account of the seventh day is not summed up, like the others, with the formula "evening was and morning was;" thus, e.g., Augustine writes at the close of his confessions: dies septimus sine vespera est nec habet occasum, quia sanctificasti eum ad permansionem sempiternam. But true as it is that the Sabbath of God has no evening, and that the σαββατισμός, to which the creature is to attain at the end of his course, will be bounded by no evening, but last for ever; we must not, without further ground, introduce this true and profound idea into the seventh creation-day. We could only be warranted in adopting such an interpretation, and understanding by the concluding day of the work of creation a period of endless duration, on the supposition that the six preceding days were so many periods in the world's history, which embraced the time from the beginning of the creation to the final completion of its development. But as the six creation-days, according to the words of the text, were earthly days of ordinary duration, we must understand the seventh in the same way; and that all the more, because in every passage, in which it is mentioned as the foundation of the theocratic Sabbath, it is regarded as an ordinary day (Exodus 20:11; Exodus 31:17). We must conclude, therefore, that on the seventh day, on which God rested from His work, the world also, with all its inhabitants, attained to the sacred rest of God; that the κατάπαυσις and σαββατισμός of God were made a rest and sabbatic festival for His creatures, especially for man; and that this day of rest of the new created world, which the forefathers of our race observed in paradise, as long as they continued in a state of innocence and lived in blessed peace with their God and Creator, was the beginning and type of the rest to which the creation, after it had fallen from fellowship with God through the sin of man, received a promise that it should once more be restored through redemption, at its final consummation.

Genesis 2:1 Parallel Commentaries

Treasury of Scripture Knowledge

Thus.

Genesis 2:4 These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created...

Genesis 1:1,10 In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth...

Exodus 20:11 For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day...

Exodus 31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth...

2 Kings 19:15 And Hezekiah prayed before the LORD, and said, O LORD God of Israel, which dwell between the cherubim, you are the God, even you alone...

2 Chronicles 2:12 Huram said moreover, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, that made heaven and earth, who has given to David the king a wise son...

Nehemiah 9:6 You, even you, are LORD alone; you have made heaven, the heaven of heavens, with all their host, the earth...

Job 12:9 Who knows not in all these that the hand of the LORD has worked this?

Psalm 89:11-13 The heavens are yours, the earth also is yours: as for the world and the fullness thereof, you have founded them...

Psalm 104:2 Who cover yourself with light as with a garment: who stretch out the heavens like a curtain:

Psalm 136:5-8 To him that by wisdom made the heavens: for his mercy endures for ever...

Psalm 146:6 Which made heaven, and earth, the sea, and all that therein is: which keeps truth for ever:

Isaiah 42:5 Thus said God the LORD, he that created the heavens, and stretched them out; he that spread forth the earth...

Isaiah 45:18 For thus said the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he has established it...

Isaiah 48:13 My hand also has laid the foundation of the earth, and my right hand has spanned the heavens: when I call to them...

Isaiah 55:9 For as the heavens are higher than the earth, so are my ways higher than your ways, and my thoughts than your thoughts.

Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

Jeremiah 10:12,16 He has made the earth by his power, he has established the world by his wisdom, and has stretched out the heavens by his discretion...

Zechariah 12:1 The burden of the word of the LORD for Israel, said the LORD, which stretches forth the heavens, and lays the foundation of the earth...

Acts 4:24 And when they heard that, they lifted up their voice to God with one accord, and said, Lord, you are God, which have made heaven...

Hebrews 4:3 For we which have believed do enter into rest, as he said, As I have sworn in my wrath, if they shall enter into my rest...

host.

Deuteronomy 4:19 And lest you lift up your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun, and the moon, and the stars, even all the host of heaven...

Deuteronomy 17:3 And has gone and served other gods, and worshipped them, either the sun, or moon, or any of the host of heaven...

2 Kings 21:3-5 For he built up again the high places which Hezekiah his father had destroyed; and he reared up altars for Baal, and made a grove...

Psalm 33:6,9 By the word of the LORD were the heavens made; and all the host of them by the breath of his mouth...

Isaiah 34:4 And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll: and all their host shall fall down...

Isaiah 40:26-28 Lift up your eyes on high, and behold who has created these things, that brings out their host by number...

Isaiah 45:12 I have made the earth, and created man on it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

Jeremiah 8:2 And they shall spread them before the sun, and the moon, and all the host of heaven, whom they have loved, and whom they have served...

Luke 2:13 And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying,

Acts 7:42 Then God turned, and gave them up to worship the host of heaven; as it is written in the book of the prophets, O you house of Israel...

Cross References
Deuteronomy 4:19
And beware lest you raise your eyes to heaven, and when you see the sun and the moon and the stars, all the host of heaven, you be drawn away and bow down to them and serve them, things that the LORD your God has allotted to all the peoples under the whole heaven.

Deuteronomy 17:3
and has gone and served other gods and worshiped them, or the sun or the moon or any of the host of heaven, which I have forbidden,

Psalm 33:6
By the word of the LORD the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host.

Isaiah 45:12
I made the earth and created man on it; it was my hands that stretched out the heavens, and I commanded all their host.

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