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International Standard Bible Encyclopedia

hal-i-kar-nas'-us (Halikarnassos): The largest and strongest city of the ancient country of Caria in Asia Minor, situated on the shore of a bay, 15 miles from the island of Cos. Its site was beautiful; its climate temperate and even; the soil of the surrounding country was unusually fertile and noted for its abundance of fig, orange, lemon, olive and almond trees. When the ancient country fell into the possession of the Persians, the kings of Caria were still permitted to rule. One of the rulers was the famous queen Artemisia who fought at the battle of Salamis. The most famous of the kings, however, was Maussollos (Mausolus), who ruled from 373 to 353 B.C., and the tomb in which he was buried was long considered one of the wonders of the ancient world. Pliny describes the tomb as a circular structure, 140 ft. high, 411 ft. in circumference, and surrounded by 36 columns; it was covered with a pyramidal dome. The ancient writer Vitruvius, in his description of the city, says that the agora was along the shore; back of it was the mausoleum, and still farther away was the temple of Mars. To the right of the agora were the temples of Venus and Mercury, and to the left was the palace of Maussollos. Alexander the Great destroyed the city only after a long siege, but he was unable to take the acropolis. The city never quite recovered, yet it was later distinguished as the supposed birthplace of Herodotus and Dionysius. That a number of Jews lived there is evident from the fact, according to 1 Maccabees 15:23, that in the year 139 B.C., a letter was written by the Roman Senate in their behalf. In the 1st century B.C., a decree was issued granting to the Jews in Halicarnassus liberty to worship "according to the Jewish laws, and to make their proseuche at the sea-side, according to the customs of their forefathers" (Josephus, Ant, XIV, x, 23).

The modern town of Budrun, which represents the ancient Halicarnassus and covers a part of its site, stands a little to the West of the castle of Peter. This castle was erected by the Knights of Rhodes in 1404 A.D., partly from the ruins of the mausoleum. Lord Redcliffe, who explored the ruins in 1846, sent many of the sculptured slabs from the castle to the British Museum where they may now be seen. Sir C. Newton conducted excavations there in 1857-58, adding other sculptures to the collection in the British Museum. He discovered the foundation of the Ionic temple of Aphrodite, and the greenstone foundation of the mausoleum upon which modern Turkish houses had been built. He also opened several tombs which were outside the ancient city. The city walls, built by Maussollos about 360 B.C., and defining the borders of the ancient city, are still preserved; but the ancient harbor which was protected by a mole, has now disappeared. The ruins may best be reached by boat from the island of Cos.

E. J. Banks


The Philosophy of the Christians More Ancient than that of the ...
... by Theagenes of Rhegium, who lived in the time of Cambyses, Stesimbrotus of Thasos
and Antimachus of Colophon, Herodotus of Halicarnassus, and Dionysius the ...
/.../tatian/tatians address to the greeks/chapter xxxi the philosophy of the.htm

The Jewish Institutions and Laws of Far Higher Antiquity than the ...
... And of the Hellenic states, the most ancient is the Argolic, I mean that which took
its rise from Inachus, as Dionysius of Halicarnassus teaches in his Times. ...
/.../the stromata or miscellanies/chapter xxi the jewish institutions and.htm

How Solomon Fortified the City of Jerusalem, and Built Great ...
... I suppose also that Herodotus of Halicarnassus, when he said there were three hundred
and thirty kings of Egypt after Menes, who built Memphis, did therefore ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 6 how solomon fortified.htm

Concerning Rehoboam, and How God Inflicted Punishment Upon Him for ...
... Now Herodotus of Halicarnassus mentions this expedition, having only mistaken the
king's name; and [in saying that] he made war upon many other nations also ...
/.../josephus/the antiquities of the jews/chapter 10 concerning rehoboam and.htm

Herodotus and Xenophon.
... subject of this volume. He was born in the Grecian state of Caria, in Asia
Minor, and in the city of Halicarnassus. Caria, as may ...
/.../abbott/cyrus the great/chapter i herodotus and xenophon.htm

The Review of the Troops at Doriscus.
... Artemisia. She was the Queen of Caria, a small province in the southwestern
part of Asia Minor, having Halicarnassus for its capital. ...
//christianbookshelf.org/abbott/xerxes/chapter vi the review of.htm

And Now Let us Proceed to Explain the Reasons for which this ...
... work is mentioned elsewhere (Præp. Evang. 1. 6, ed. Gaisford, p. 40) as
a "historical library.". [3568] Dionysius of Halicarnassus. ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/chapter xiii and now let.htm

... Herodotus: "These are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes,
in order to preserve from oblivion the remembrance of former deeds of ...
/.../schaff/history of the christian church volume i/section 82 luke.htm

Eusebius: Constantine. General Index.
... Diomede, [3653]602. Dionysius, [3654]551. Dionysius of Halicarnassus, [3655]602.
Discourses of C., [3656]547. Discourses by bishops at Jerusalem, [3657]552. ...
/.../pamphilius/the life of constantine/eusebius constantine general index.htm

One Argument which Has Been Much Relied Upon but not More than Its ...
... Josephus gives us a decree of the city of Halicarnassus, permitting the Jews to
build oratories; a part of which decree runs thus: " "We ordain that the Jews ...
/.../paley/evidences of christianity/chapter vi one argument which.htm

... Int. Standard Bible Encyclopedia HALICARNASSUS. hal-i-kar-nas'-us
(Halikarnassos): The largest and strongest city of the ancient ...
/h/halicarnassus.htm - 9k

Rhodes (2 Occurrences)
... Lindus, Ialysus and Camirus formed with Cos, Cnidus and Halicarnassus the so-called
Dorian Hexapolis (Six Cities), the center of which was the temple of the ...
/r/rhodes.htm - 13k

Dionysius (1 Occurrence)
... the Martyr). The patron saint of France is Denys; compare the French "Denys
d'Halicarnasse" (Dionysius of Halicarnassus). The mystical ...
/d/dionysius.htm - 7k

Armenia (2 Occurrences)
... vii.73), used the Phrygian dress and armor (Dion. of Halicarnassus; Eudoxius;
Herod.) and spoke the same language (Herod. i.171). ...
/a/armenia.htm - 21k

Hali (1 Occurrence)

/h/hali.htm - 7k

Haling (1 Occurrence)

/h/haling.htm - 7k



Related Terms

Rhodes (2 Occurrences)

Dionysius (1 Occurrence)

Armenia (2 Occurrences)

Hali (1 Occurrence)

Haling (1 Occurrence)

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