Lange Commentary on the Holy Scriptures
A Psalm of David
1 Give unto the LORD, O ye mighty,
Give unto the LORD glory and strength.
2 Give unto the LORD the glory due unto his name;
Worship the LORD in the beauty of holiness.
3 The voice of the LORD is upon the waters:
The God of glory thundereth:
The LORD is upon many waters.
4 The voice of the LORD is powerful;
The voice of the LORD is full of majesty.
5 The voice of the LORD breaketh the cedars;
Yea, the LORD breaketh the cedars of Lebanon.
6 He maketh them also to skip like a calf;
Lebanon and Sirion like a young unicorn.
7 The voice of the LORD divideth the flames of fire.
8 The voice of the LORD shaketh the wilderness;
The LORD shaketh the wilderness of Kadesh.
9 The voice of the LORD maketh the hinds to calve,
And discovereth the forests:
And in his temple doth every one speak of his glory.
10 The LORD sitteth upon the flood;
Yea, the LORD sitteth King forever.
11 The LORD will give strength unto his people;
The LORD will bless his people with peace.
EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL
ITS CONTENTS AND AIM.—After calling upon the heavenly beings to praise the power and glory of Jehovah, and to worship Him with solemnity (Psalm 29:1–2), there is a picturesque description of a storm (Psalm 29:3–9) advancing from the Mediterranean to the mountains of Dan towards the South (J. D. Mich.), in the fearful sublimity of its appearance, and its effects upon nature; and that passes over into a reference to the royal majesty of Jehovah at the flood, the greatest of the disturbances of nature in the ancient world, and it exalts Him as ever abiding above, which will likewise be for the historical and saving good of His people (Psalm 29:10–11). The Psalm has therefore not merely a poetic character and aim, interwoven with general religious considerations, but it is of a historical and redemptive character. Its essential character is not that of a lyrical description of a magnificent tempest, which has become a hymn (Hupf.), from which finally an application is made; but on the occasion of a storm and under the impression of its power of commotion and destruction, the host of the heavenly servants of God are called upon to worship (not Elohim, but) Jehovah, and His people to trust in Him. There is no trace of any particular historical circumstance, whether of the carrying of the Ark of the Covenant to Mt. Zion (Ruding) or of trouble from external enemies, as Ps. 28 from internal enemies (Hengst.). But this does not give the right of an allegorical reference of this Psalm to the giving of the Law at Sinai (the Rabbins previous to Kimchi), or of its prophetical reference to the Messiah, and His judgment of the nations (Kimchi), or to Christ and the power of His word, to whom magistrates are called upon to submit themselves in homage and worship (Geier, Seb. Schmidt, et al.). The following suppositions are likewise unfounded; that the Psalm has no personal reference, but is sung from the souls of the people in order to edify the congregation (Hengst.); or that it has for its foundation only the general idea of Jehovah as the God of thunder and the God of the nation (De Wette), or that it has as its object, by describing the fearful power of God in the frightful phenomena of nature, to awaken the sleeping conscience, and particularly to arouse the proud rulers from their security, and warn them to submit to the sovereignty of God (Calvin). The sevenfold repetition of the thunder as the voice of Jehovah has become typical of Rev. 10:1 sq., and is to be regarded as a holy number (Geier), whilst the repetition pictures the thunder as sounding clap upon clap. The kindling flash of lightning is only mentioned once (Psalm 29:7). Hengstenberg however presses this symbolism of number too far with reference to the use of the name of Jehovah in this and the preceding Psalm.13—In the Septuagint we find an addition to the title, ἐξοδίου σκηνῆς (Vulg., incorrectly, in consummatione tabernaculi), which then seems to imply, that it was then sung (Delitzsch) on the closing day (Lev. 23:26) of the feast of tabernacles (Shemini Azereth). In the middle ages it was used as a prayer during storms as a prevention of strokes of lightning.—The pretended resemblances with the prophet Jeremiah are very weak.14
Str. I. Psalm 29:1. Sons of Gods.—[A. V., O ye mighty]. It is grammatically and etymologically admissible to translate, sons of the mighty = mighty ones, rulers, princes, (the Rabbins and many ancient interpreters); so likewise sons of idols = servants of idols (J. D. Mich., Döderlein, Muntinghe). But Psalm 29:9c. is against these translations, for those who are addressed are in heaven above. Now Elîm never occurs in the usage of the language, as plur. majest. with a singular meaning, but constantly, as plural, designates the gods of the heathen, Ex. 15:11; 18:11; Pss. 95:3; 96:4; 97:9, the θεὸι λεγόμενοι, 1 Cor. 8:5, in contrast with whom the true God Jehovah is called El Elîm (Dan. 11:36) or indeed El Elohîm (Jos. 22:22; Ps. 50:1), El haêlohîm (Deut. 10:17) Elohê haêlohim (Ps. 136:2), because these gods have likewise the name of Elohim (Ps. 86:8). Therefore we cannot translate at once, sons or children of God (Sept. et al.), justify the plural Elîm by reference to the grammatical form (Gesen. Gramm., § 106, 3; Ewald ausf. Lehrbuch, § 270 c) of an attraction in composition as Ex. 1:11, 1 Chron. 7:5 (De Wette), or by the supposition that it is a plural of ben al., formed after the analogy of Isa. 42:22, compared with Psalm 29:7; Isa. 51:9, compared with Gen. 9:12; Jeremiah 42:8 compared with 2 Sam. 24:4 (Hitzig). But if neither the heathen gods nor their sons are addressed here, but manifestly the angels, then these constitute the heavenly company surrounding God (Job 1:6; 2:1); the heavenly host (1 Kings 22:19; Neh. 9:6), whose duty it is to praise God (Pss. 89:6; 103:20; Job 38:7, comp. Isa. 6:3). These are called, usually, sons of Elohim (Gen. 6:2, and in the passage cited from Job) when not named maleâchim with special reference to their duty of declaring and executing the will of God. They are likewise designated as the host of the holy ones (kedoshîm) Job 5:1; 15:15, which surround Jehovah, Ps. 89:6, 8, and entirely parallel with them, Ps. 89:7, the benê Elîm, so that there can be no doubt of the sense (Ps. 82, on which Hupfeld lays great stress, is not appropriate here). The Chald. likewise on this passage has the paraphrase, hosts of angels. The form of the expression is explained by the fact that the word Elim as well as Elohim has a general meaning (Ps. 8:6) and was applied to various beings of supernatural power, who might be the objects of religious reverence, and that the expression ben, benê did not always express the physical derivation through generation, but partly physical and partly moral dependence, and included those who were thus designated in one body. There is another translation in the Sept., Vulg., Syr., Jerome, “sons of rams,” as a figurative designation of the sacrifice. These translations lead to the reading אילים, which 5 codd. Kennic., and 4 de Rossi have, but it is improperly explained, since this reading is often found, Ex. 15:15; Job 41:17; Ezek. 31:11 (singular); 32:11, where this fundamental meaning of strength is very ancient, 2 Kings 24:15, even in the form אוליס.—Give to Jehovah glory and strength.—This is not to be changed into “honor and praise,” but the giving is a tribuere, an offering of the tribute due to the glory and strength of God; recognizing it in words and deeds, a δοῦναι δόξαν (Acts 12:23; Luke 17:18; Rom. 4:20).
Psalm 29:2. In holy attire.—This is the priestly attire used at festivals in the service of God (most interpreters since Luther), Ps. 96:9; 1 Chron. 16:29, in which priests and Levites likewise marched before the Lord with music when they went forth to battle (2 Chron. 20:21). Hupfeld concludes from the last passage, where חדר is construed with ל, and from Prov. 14:28, that the reference is here likewise to the Divine majesty and glory (so Aquil., Symm., Chald., Jerome, Kimchi), and that the construction with ב includes perhaps the idea of the place, where it was revealed, that is, the sanctuary. Calvin, Ruding., Cleric., after the Sept. and Syriac, adopt the latter view at once.—The reading in Ps. 110:3 is not entirely certain.15
Str. II. Psalm 29:3. The voice of Jehovah.—[Hupfeld: “This is not every audible declaration of God in nature, which speaks to us at the same time (Hengst., Hofm.), but is only a poetical and childlike name of thunder (comp. Ps. 18:14), that is the murmuring and scolding of wrath (compare Pss. 18:14; 104:7), with which, in contrast with the creative word, the interference of God in nature is connected, which restrains and destroys.”—C. A. B.]—The great waters are naturally not an allegorical designation of the colluvies gentium (J. H. Mich.), nor hardly the waters which were above the vault of heaven according to Gen. 1:7, comp. Ps. 148:4 (Umbreit, Maurer), but either those of the Mediterranean Sea (J. D. Mich., Munt.), or corresponding with the beginning of the description, those of the lowering clouds. Ps. 18:11; 104:3; Jer. 10:13 (most interpreters).
[Psalm 29:4. The voice of Jehovah in power! The voice of Jehovah in majesty!—Alexander: “In power, in majesty, i.e. invested with these attributes, a stronger expression than the corresponding adjectives, strong and majestic would be, and certainly more natural and consonant to usage than the construction which makes in a mere sign of that in which something else consists.”—C. A. B.]
Str. III. Psalm 29:5. Breaketh the cedars of Lebanon.—The cedars and mountains are not allegorical designations of the great ones of the earth, particularly of heathen princes (the Rabbins and many ancient interpreters), and the cedars of Lebanon are no more poetical designations of the highest and strongest cedars (Geier, Rosenm., Hengst.), than the mountains of Lebanon and Sirion and the desert of Kadesh are a poetical use of individuals for the whole class (Hupfeld).
Psalm 29:6. Maketh them skip like a calf.—[Hupfeld: “This is a poetical hyperbole of the shaking of the earth, as afterwards of the desert, Psalm 29:8, like an earthquake occasioned by the thunder; a standing feature of Theophanies (vid.Ps. 18:7 sq.). So of mountains, Ps. 114:4, 6, with a similar comparison with rams and lambs. The suffix, them (יֵם), refers not primarily to the mountains of Lebanon, which are mentioned in the second clause, as many interpreters (even Ewald, Olsh.) suppose, but to the cedars mentioned in the previous verse (Geier, De Wette, Maurer, Hengst., Hitzig, Delitzsch); certainly only in consequence of the skipping of the mountains on which they stand, and therefore they are mentioned themselves in the second member.”—C. A. B.].—Sirion like a young buffalo.16—Sirion (either=glimmer, or coat of mail) is the ancient Sidonian name of Mt. Hermon, according to Deut. 3:9, the highest peak of the eastern range of Lebanon.
Psalm 29:7. Cleaveth the flames of fire.—This is a poetical expression of forked lightning. So Syriac, Chald., Vatabl., Ruding., J. D. Mich. and most recent interpreters. The meaning of the word is rendered certain by Isa. 10:15, where the reference is to cleaving timber.17 The usual meaning: hew out, particularly stones and from stones (Sept.), is possible here, namely in the sense, that the flames are beaten out of the clouds, as sparks out of the flint (Calvin). But the usual ancient translation, hew as flames of fire (Luther), or with flames of fire (Geier, Hengst. [Alexander]) is against the language. And the interpretation: to cut out the flames of fire (von Hofmann), that is, that the storm wind gives direction and form to the blazing flames, affords a monstrous figure.
Str. IV. Psalm 29:8. The wilderness of Kadesh.—Kadesh, literally=set apart. This was that part of the Arabic desert west of the granite and porphyry mountains of Edom, which was a part of the great desert (Deut. 1:19; 11:24; Jer. 2:6), and which was covered with hills of chalk and drift sand. Comp. Gen. 20:4; Num. 13:26.
Str. V. Psalm 29:9. Maketh the hinds to calve.—Instead of אַיָּלוֹת the Syriac read אֵילוֹת, oaks, or terebinths, and some interpreters (Lowth, Venema, Munting.) have adopted it. But Job 39:1 sq. decides for the usual reading, and is not in favor of the view that the reference is to the severe labor of the hinds in calving in the month of May, which is rendered easier by the storm (Bochart, Hieroz. I., lib. 3, cap. 17, after the Rabbins), but of a premature delivery, brought on by fright, as 1 Sam. 4:19 sq., in the case of the wife of Phinehas. This is brought about, according to Pliny (Hist. Nat., VIII, 47), by the thunder even with solitary sheep, and, according to Ewald, is likewise mentioned by Arabic authors with reference to hinds.—And strippeth forests.—This is not of laying bare the roots of the trees, or of the forest by the wind (many of the older interpreters), so not of stripping the trees of their leaves and boughs by the storm (Calv., Delitzsch), or by the shower (Hitzig), but the peeling off of the bark (Joel 1:7) by the lightning (Hupf.), since the word properly means “discover” (Sept., Jerome, Isaki, Luther [A. V.]).—And in His temple speaks every one: glory!—The palace of God is not the earthly temple (Rabbins), or the Church (Calvin and most older interpreters), so likewise not the world (Cleric.) in which sense it is improperly translated “in His entire palace” (Rosenm.), but heaven (Chald., Geier, et al.). The participle ômer expresses the simultaneousness of the praise with the terrors (Ewald,18 von Hofm., Hupfeld). The suffix in כלו is correctly rendered by the Chald. in the paraphrase: all His servants. It is used in reference to the preceding “in His palace” (Hitzig), but not in direct reference to the palace itself=its totality (Hengstenberg, [Alexander]), or to the sons of Gods, Psalm 29:1 (De Wette), but to an indefinite general subject (Hupfeld)=πᾶς τις (Sept., Syr.), which receives its more specific meaning from the context. [Delitzsch: “It happens as the poet desired in Psalm 29:1, 2. Jehovah receives back the glory displayed in the world in a thousandfold echo of worship.”—C. A. B.]
Str. VI. Psalm 29:10. Jehovah has sat enthroned above the Flood.—The reference to the Flood is decided partly by the article, partly by the word mabul (Syr. momul), Gen. 6–11, which is used only with this reference. And this is not a mere recollection of the flood (Ewald, Kurtz), comparing it with the overflowings effected by the rain-storm (Ruding., J. D. Mich., Köster, Olsh., Hitz.), or to the heavenly ocean (Maurer), upon which (ל used as in Ps. 9:4, approved likewise by Baur in De Wette’s commentary) Jehovah sits enthroned. Since ישׁב indicates not only the royal sitting of Jehovah, but likewise His judicial sitting (Ps. 9:7; 122:5), it is better to regard the ל either as of the purpose=of producing it (von Hofm., Delitzsch) as Köster, Olsh., Hitzig take it, with a generalizing of the Flood; or in the sense of על=above, Ps. 7:7 (Hupfeld), since the Divine judgment includes likewise a deliverance (Chald.), and both references are here mentioned. The supposition of a mere reference to time=at (Baihing., Hengst. [Alexander]), weakens the sense. The Vulgate does this still more in its rendering, which as the Sept. in some codd. reads: Jehovah inhabits the flood; in others reads: makes to inhabit.—And so will Jehovah sit as King forever.—The future with vav is in a significant contrast with the preterite of Psalm 29:10a, and is not to be regarded as a preterite, לְעוֹלָם being translated, in primitive time (Sachs); but it cannot be explained too specifically either of the coming Messianic judgment (Rabbins), or with reference to a coming flood of fire and brimstone (Ephræm Syr., J. H. Mich.), or to the saving water of Baptism, with reference to 1 Pet. 3:21 (Luther, Seb. Schmidt et al.). “Whilst we still hear the voice of the Lord in the rushing of the storm through the forests stripped of their leaves, the poet snatches us away at once from the tumult of earth and places us amid the choirs of the heavenly temple, which above in holy silence sing glory and praise to the Eternal” (Umbreit).
[Psalm 29:11. Jehovah will bless His people with peace.—Delitzsch: “How impressive the closing word of this Psalm! It is arched as a rainbow above it. The beginning of the Psalm shows us the heavens open and the throne of God in the midst of angelic songs of praise, and the close of the Psalm shows us on earth, in the midst of the angry voice of Jehovah shaking all things, His people victorious and blessed with peace. Gloria in excelsis is the beginning and pax in terris the end.”—C. A. B.]
DOCTRINAL AND ETHICAL
1. God has a glory and a power which are peculiar to His nature, and He gives them to be known likewise on earth and in heaven, so that He may be named after them and yet His name not be an arbitrary title, but an expression of His nature. On the ground of this and in consequence of it, He will have in heaven and on earth the recognition to which He is entitled. He insists upon His glory and demands the tribute due to it, whilst He calls attention to His acts as well as to His works.
2. Even in nature God declares Himself in its commotions as its Lord and Master. That which transpires in the phenomena of nature is not a play of hidden powers; and we have to trace in them not the motions of the world-spirit, not the operation of the gods of nature, not the rushing of the spirits of the elements, but the scolding and government of Jehovah, the God of historical revelation; and, therefore, we need not fear them although all creatures tremble and quake. For Jehovah makes nature the servant of His ends in the government and redemption of the world, and He is not only a King in the kingdom of heaven and over His chosen people, but He is the Almighty and Eternal ruler of all things.
3. When the voice of Jehovah is heard in the thunder, the conscience may be awakened and with the remembrance of the judgment of God thoughts, especially of the Flood, may be excited in the heart in connection with storms and showers, earthquakes and floods. But the same God who at the Flood made known His royal dominion in judging the world and delivering a seed of His people, now likewise, when He purifies the air by a storm, bestows refreshment to the land, fruitfulness and the blessings of the harvest, and acts in the same manner in the life of the people and in the history of the world. Hence His people have every reason, when there are such declarations of the power of God in nature and above nature, which are praised in heaven as revelations of His glory, to strengthen their faith in His help and their hope in His blessing in stormy times and amidst the commotions of life, by a remembrance of the analogous government of God in history. Many ancient interpreters, misunderstanding this connection and internal advance of the thought, have fallen upon a mere allegorical explanation and symbolical interpretation of the entire Psalm, and have then partly understood, not only by the sons of God, but likewise by the cedars of Lebanon, the great ones of the earth, and so likewise by the palace the temple at Jerusalem, and indeed by Jehovah’s voice the preaching of the Divine word; and partly have regarded Lebanon, Sirion, the desert as symbolical designations of historical relations or indeed of spiritual conditions. Roman Catholic interpreters have often found a particular reason for this in the circumstance, that Psalm 29:5 b in the Sept. and Vulg. reads: “and the beloved (is) as a young unicorn,” and Psalm 29:5 a in the Vulg., differing there from the Sept., “and will crush them as calves of Lebanon.” Even Schegg brings this verse into direct connection with the words of the title of the Sept., and Vulg. referring to the feast of the dedication of the tabernacle, and interprets it of the election of Judah the beloved (or even of Zion, Ps. 68:16), which resembles the unicorn in freshness of life and strength, in contrast with the rejection of Ephraim, Ps. 78:67, the calf of Lebanon crushed by the Lord (Isa. 8:9), with reference to the comparison of Joseph with a bullock (Deut. 33:17), and to the places of the worship of the calf in the kingdom of Israel, in the South at Bethel, in the North at Dan in Lebanon. The desert is then said to indicate man’s renouncing all his earthly advantages and merits, and the shaking of it to mean its fructification and transformation (Ps. 107:35; Isa. 51:3), which is to be expected when the sevenfold flame of the Holy Spirit pours itself, in the Sacraments, over the soul shaken by the preaching of the Gospel. This is sufficient to bring to mind the arbitrariness and danger of the allegorical interpretation of Scripture and to clearly show its essential difference from the interpretation of the language of nature speaking by signs and a practical use of it for the edification of the congregation. “The voice of God sounds at first in the thunder of the song causing all things to shake; but at the end it vanishes softly away in the quickening drops of the words: He blesses His people with peace” (Umbreit).
HOMILETICAL AND PRACTICAL
Many who are now cold and careless in praising God and celebrating His holy name, would give honor to the Lord, if they were mindful of His glory.—From the Almighty God comes the blessing of peace upon His worshipping people.—The manifestation of the omnipotence of God should lead us, 1) to praise His glory with adoration, 2) to shun His judgment, 3) to resign ourselves to His protection.—God will have the honor due Him at first in heaven, but afterwards on earth; all His manifestations in nature as well as in history should remind us of this.—What a consolation it is, that God is 1) the Almighty Lord of all things, 2) the righteous Judge of all the world, 3) the King of His people, bestowing blessings.—All the manifestations of the power of God are likewise revelations of His glory and His royal government, which is ever the same.—When a storm reminds us of the Flood and the Flood of the Divine judgment we should not forget that it is one and the same God, who in the storm, the flood and the judgment brings to light not only the terrors, but likewise the blessings of His royal glory.—In the phenomena of nature as well as the events of the world, God speaks to men; it is well for those who hearken to God’s voice, take heed to God’s government and worship God as the Lord of glory in holy attire.—It is revealed amidst the terrors, destructions and dangers in the world, what we know of God, think of Him and expect from Him.—The particular exhibitions of the Divine majesty on earth are transient, the majesty and power itself remain to this King forever.
STARKE: He who perceives and experiences the power of the voice of the Lord, may likewise experience in his soul the glory of God.—If the voice of the Lord goes with such power and strength in the physical thunder storm, what will be said of the wonderful, penetrating power of the thunder of His word which is yet to be heard on all waters among all nations?—The Lord sits in judgment over all those who refuse to obey His voice, as at the time of the Flood He judged His first world.—OSIANDER: God has no pleasure in splendid and costly attire and ornaments, which are highly esteemed by the world, but He is pleased with spiritual attire, when the heart is purified within by faith and is adorned with all kinds of Christian virtues.—FRITSCH: The greatest honor of a prince, court, city, land is, that God’s honor dwells there.—RENSCHEL: Take heed of the voice of the Lord; this shows thee His power and takes away from thee thy pride.—RIEGER: We cannot give the Lord anything; but it is our business to know and confess His name.—THOLUCK: If the saints already on earth as soon as the storms of God roar, worship in priestly reverence, how much more those in heaven.—VON GERLACH: Those things which among men are for the most part far apart, are united in God’s works, infinite power and symmetrical beauty.
[MATTH. HENRY: If we would in hearing and praying, and other acts of devotion, receive grace from God, we must make it our business to give glory to God.—Whenever it thunders let us think of this Psalm; and whenever we sing this Psalm let us think of the dreadful thunderclaps we have sometimes heard, and thus bring God’s word and His works together, that by both we may be directed and quickened to give unto Him the glory due unto His name; and let us bless Him that there is another voice of His besides this dreadful one, by which God now speaks to us, even the still small voice of His Gospel, the terror of which shall not make us afraid.—When the thunder of God’s wrath shall make sinners tremble, the saints shall lift up their heads with joy.—SPURGEON: Just as the eighth Psalm is to be read by moonlight when the stars are bright, as the nineteenth needs the rays of the rising sun to bring out its beauty, so this can be best rehearsed beneath the black wing of tempest, by the glare of the lightning, or amid that dubious dusk which heralds the war of elements.—The call to worship chimes in with the loud pealing thunder, which is the church bell of the universe ringing kings and angels, and all the sons of earth to their devotions.—His voice, whether in nature or revelation, shakes both earth and heaven; see that ye refuse not Him that speaketh. If His voice be thus mighty, what must His hand be! beware lest ye provoke a blow.—C. A. B.]
[Hengstenberg regards the use of the name of Jehovah ten times in the main part of the Psalm, as important (Psalm 29:3–9), as signifying completeness and finish.—Ewald divides the Psalm into five parts, the introduction and conclusion being alike of four lines, the body of the Psalm consisting of three parts of five lines each, the whole being thus highly artistic. The storm is described in three stages. “At first it is heard in the extreme distance of the highest heavens (Psalm 29:3, 4), then in rapidly increasing power it covers the whole visible heavens (Psalm 29:5–7), finally coming from the north and descending constantly lower it passes away in the far south.” Perowne: “The structure of the whole is highly artificial, and elaborated with a symmetry of which no more perfect specimen exists in Hebrew. But this evidently artificial mode of composition is no check to the force and fire of the Poet’s genius, which kindles, and glows, and sweeps along with all the freedom and majesty of the storm; the whole Psalm being one continued strain of triumphant exultation.”—C. A. B.]
[Wordsworth on this Psalm indulges in a series of fanciful interpretations. I will give a general specimen here which will do for the whole Psalm. “The voice of the thunder, and the flash of the lightning spoke to the Psalmist of the manifestations of God’s glory on Mount. Sinai, amid thunders and lightnings, at the giving of the Law (Ex. 19:16). Then the ‘voice of the Lord’ was heard, as Moses describes, with exceeding power (see Exod. 19:19; 20:18), and it sounded forth in the thunders of the Decalogue. Hence the Hebrew Church connected this Psalm with Pentcost, the Feast of the Giving of the Law; and in the Christian Church this Psalm, used in a large portion of Christendom at the Epiphany, and falling, as it does, in the series of the octaves of the Ascension, may raise the thoughts to the glory of the Creator and Redeemer, manifested in love as well as in power upon earth, and showing His glory and power by riding upon the clouds, and by sending down the Holy Ghost, the Comforter, from heaven at Pentecost, with the sound of a rushing mighty wind, and in flames of fire (Acts 2:2), to strengthen and comfort His Church.”—C. A. B.]
[Perowne: “In holy vestments, heaven being thought of as one great temple, and all the worshippers therein as clothed in priestly garments, and doing perpetual service.”—C. A. B.]
[A. V. translates young unicorn—vid. notes on Ps. 22:12.—C. A. B.]
[Perowne: “With every thunder-peal comes the terrible forked lightning, so striking in tropical and eastern lands. Its vivid, zig-zag, serpent-like flash is given in a few words.”—C. A. B.]
[Ewald translates at once: “whilst in His palace—all speaks ‘glory.’ ”—C. A. B.]
A Psalm of David. Give unto the LORD, O ye mighty, give unto the LORD glory and strength.