Haydock Catholic Bible Commentary
Espousals. He speaks ironically. (Theodoret) --- Yet the Israelites at first shewed greater proofs of love than they did afterwards. It is true they often prevaricated, in the wilderness, Exodus xxxii. 1., and Amos v. 25., and Psalm lxxvii., &c. (Calmet) --- The Lord declares his gratuitous love, and then upbraids his people. (Haydock) --- He had caused them to multiply in Egypt, and gratuitously made choice of them. (Worthington)
Increase; most desirable, Osee ix. 10. God punished those who attempted to injure his people: yet they abandoned his service.
Vanity; idols, whom he will not mention, to spare their shame. (Calmet)
Carmel. That is, a fruitful, plentiful land. (Challoner) (Worthington) --- All Palestine is thus designated. (Menochius)
Priests were silent, or abandoned themselves. --- Pastors; "princes." (Chaldean) Manasses, Amon, &c. --- In Baal, promoting his worship. (Haydock) --- The land was full of false prophets, and none stood up for the Lord.
Children; the Israelites, under Moses, and their posterity transgressed.
Cethim; Macedon. It here denotes the western nations, as Cedar does those of the east.
Glory; the true God and his ark, Psalm iii. 4., and 1 Kings iv. 21.
Gates; angels, or the temple.
Water. The idols and nations, to which they have had recourse, injure them. (Calmet) --- The Jews did just the reverse to what God commanded. (Worthington)
Slave. From such, labour and tribute were required, Matthew xvii. 24., and John viii. 33.
Lions; kings of Assyria, &c. The decree for the devastation of Juda had already passed, though it was not put in execution.
Taphnes, 16 miles from Pelusium, in Egypt. The nation proved only detrimental to the Jews, by engaging them in their abominations, instead of affording relief.
Troubled. Hebrew shichor, or Nile water, (Josue xiii. 3.) which was thought as good as wine, and grew better for keeping. (Strabo xvii.) --- Hence the people adored it. (Vitruvius viii.) --- God often reproached the Jews for distrusting in his protection, and seeking aid from the Egyptians, who deceived them. We know not that Josias did so. (Calmet) --- He even opposed them, and lost his life in defending the country, 4 Kings xxiii. 29. (Haydock) --- He was probably obliged to pay tribute to the Assyrians, whom Achaz had called in, 2 Paralipomenon xxviii. 23. These alliances the Lord condemned.
Thou. Septuagint. Yet Hebrew and Chaldean have, "I have permissively broken," or foretold this infidelity.
Chosen. Hebrew, Sorek, Judges xvi. 4., and Isaias v. 2., and xvi. 8. (Calmet) --- God created all things good, planted his Church in justice, and no evil proceeds from Him. (Worthington)
Borith. An herb used to clean clothes, and take out spots and dirt, (Challoner) like kali, soda, (Calmet) or soap. (Langius.) --- Protestants, "and take thee much soap." (Haydock)
Valley of Hinnom, under the very walls of Jerusalem. (Calmet) --- Runner. Hebrew, "dromedary," which takes its name from its swiftness. (Haydock) --- The female camel continues all day with the male, and cannot be approached. (Aristotle; Pliny, [Natural History?] x. 63.) --- Juda is represented as no less libidinous. (Calmet)
Away. The female may easily be found by the poisonous hippo-manes. (Georg. iii.) --- Thus Jerusalem is an impudent prostitute. (Haydock)
Foot, and the parts which modesty covers. My exhortations are slighted. (Calmet) --- Despair opens the door to every sort of impurity, Ephesians iv. 19. (Haydock)
Taken. Juda affected still to be very pious, ver. 23.
Cities. All were abandoned, Ezechiel xvi. 24., and Osee x. 1.
Prophets; Zacharias, (2 Paralipomenon xxiv. 21.) Isaias, &c., Matthew xxiii. 34. (Calmet) --- Punishment is designed by God to cause people to repent. (Worthington)
See, or hear. The sword seems to be animated. (Calmet) --- Lateward. Hebrew, "darksome land." Have I not heaped blessings on my people? --- Revolted. Protestants, "Lords." (Haydock)
Thou who. Hebrew, "Therefore have I." (Calmet) --- Protestants, "hast thou also taught the wicked ones thy ways." (Haydock) --- Thou hast opened a school of vice.
Innocent children, immolated to Moloc, or people murdered, whose blood thou hast not concealed, 4 Kings xxi. 16.
Head, like the violated Thamar, 2 Kings xiii. 19. The king of Egypt was routed, when coming to assist Sedecias, chap. xxxvii. 3, 10. (Calmet)