Genesis 44:2
And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
Genesis 44:2. Put my cup, the silver cup — Probably a large cup of great value, and much used by Joseph; in the sack’s mouth of the youngest — Hereby, it seems, Joseph meant to try his brethren’s affection to Benjamin, whether they would assist him in his extremity, and also their regard for their father, whether they would willingly give up and leave in confinement his favourite son. Had they hated Benjamin as they had Joseph, and been influenced by the same unfeeling disposition as they formerly were toward their father, they certainly would have discovered themselves on this occasion: and no doubt Joseph would have taken his measures in dealing with them accordingly.44:1-17 Joseph tried how his brethren felt towards Benjamin. Had they envied and hated the other son of Rachel as they had hated him, and if they had the same want of feeling towards their father Jacob as heretofore, they would now have shown it. When the cup was found upon Benjamin, they would have a pretext for leaving him to be a slave. But we cannot judge what men are now, by what they have been formerly; nor what they will do, by what they have done. The steward charged them with being ungrateful, rewarding evil for good; with folly, in taking away the cup of daily use, which would soon be missed, and diligent search made for it; for so it may be read, Is not this it in which my lord drinketh, as having a particular fondness for it, and for which he would search thoroughly? Or, By which, leaving it carelessly at your table, he would make trial whether you were honest men or not? They throw themselves upon Joseph's mercy, and acknowledge the righteousness of God, perhaps thinking of the injury they had formerly done to Joseph, for which they thought God was now reckoning with them. Even in afflictions wherein we believe ourselves wronged by men, we must own that God is righteous, and finds out our sin.And my cup. - Besides returning each man's money as before, a silver cup of Joseph's is put in Benjamin's bag, after which, when daylight comes, they are dismissed. They are scarcely out of the town when Joseph's steward is ordered to overtake them, and charge them with stealing the cup. "And whereby indeed he divineth." Divining by cups, we learn from this, was a common custom in Egypt (Herodotus ii. 83). It is here mentioned to enhance the value of the cup. Whether Joseph really practised any sort of divination cannot be determined from this passage.2. put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth—It was a large goblet, as the original denotes, highly valued by its owner, on account of its costly material or its elegant finish and which had probably graced his table at the sumptuous entertainment of the previous day. It seems to have been a large cup, and of great price, and much used by Joseph.

In the sack’s mouth of the youngest, with design to discover their intentions and affections towards Benjamin, whether they did envy him, and would desert him in his danger, as they did Joseph; or would cleave to him; that hence he might take his measures how to deal with him and them. And put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest,.... Benjamin; this he ordered to be done, partly to put him in apparent danger, and try how his brethren would behave towards him in such circumstances, and thereby know how they stood affected to him; and partly that he might have an excuse for retaining him with him. This cup was valuable both for the matter of it, being of silver, and for the use of it, being what Joseph himself drank out of: and by the word used to express it, it seems to have been a large embossed cup, a kind of goblet, for it has the signification of a little hill. Jarchi says it was a long cup, which they called "mederno". The Septuagint render it by "condy", which is said to be a Persian word, and a kind of an Attalic cup, that held ten cotylae (g), or four or five quarts, and weighed ninety ounces; but a cup so large seems to be too large to drink out of:

and his corn money; what he had paid for his corn:

and he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken; put every man's money in the mouth of his sack, and his silver cup with the corn money into Benjamin's sack.

(g) Nicomachus de festis Aegypt. apud Athenaeum, l. 11. c. 7.

And {a} put my cup, the silver cup, in the sack's mouth of the youngest, and his corn money. And he did according to the word that Joseph had spoken.

(a) We may not use this example to justify any unlawful practices, seeing God has commanded us to walk in simplicity.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
2. the silver cup] i.e. a well-known, or favourite, goblet. The word for “cup,” the same as in Exodus 25:31, Jeremiah 35:5 (where it is rendered “bowl”), seems to denote a vessel shaped like the calyx of a flower. LXX renders κόνδυ; Lat. scyphum.

Observe that Joseph does not reveal his intention to the steward. He plays upon his brethren the same trick as in chap. 42; but brings matters to a point by associating Benjamin with the loss of the cup.And "his (Joseph's) bowels did yearn" (נכמרוּ lit., were compressed, from the force of love to his brother), so that he was obliged to seek (a place) as quickly as possible to weep, and went into the chamber, that he might give vent to his feelings in tears; after which, he washed his face and came out again, and, putting constraint upon himself, ordered the dinner to be brought in.
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