And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their settings.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)They shall be set in gold in their inclosings.—Or, in their settings. Every gem was to be enclosed in its own setting of gold.
they shall be set in gold in their enclosings; or be set and enclosed in ouches or sockets of gold, as the two onyx stones upon the shoulder pieces of the ephod: there were twelve of these ouches or sockets, which might be made out of one piece of gold, into which the twelve above stones were put. These stones were, no doubt, brought out of Egypt by the children of Israel, and were the gifts of their princes.And the fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper: they shall be set in gold in their inclosings.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)20. a beryl] Heb. tarshish, χρυσόλιθος (Revelation 21:10), chrysolithus: Ezekiel 1:16; Ezekiel 10:9; Ezekiel 28:13, Song of Solomon 5:14, Daniel 10:6. The name tarshish apparently points to its being obtained from Tarshish (Tartessus) in Spain. The chrysolite (‘gold-stone’) of the later Greeks (which was also obtained from Spain, Pliny, H. N. xxxvii. 127) is probably our topaz1, but as this was unknown in earlier times, some other gold-coloured stone must be intended,—perhaps (Petrie) the yellow jasper. It is not however stated whether this stone is (or was) found in Spain. The rend. beryl is as old as Abarbanel (1437–1508): the chalcedony (RVm.; Revelation 21:19) of the ancients,—so called from its being found at Chalcedon (opposite to Byzantium),—was the green transparent carbonate of copper, our copper emerald (Smith, DB. s.v.).
 By a curious interchange of terms, it seems that ‘the ancient chrysolite is the modern topaz, and the ancient topaz the modern chrysolite’ (Smith, DB. s.v. Beryl).
an onyx] Heb. shôham, βηρύλλιον (so LXX. here, but not consistently), onychinus: v. 9, Exodus 25:7, Genesis 2:12, Ezekiel 28:13, Job 28:16, 1 Chronicles 29:2. This is usually supposed to be either the onyx (LXX. in Job; Vulg. mostly) or the beryl (LXX. here; Pesh. Targ. always): the onyx being a stratified stone, consisting of layers of white (resembling in colour the nail, whence the name), grey, and other colours (see DB. s.v.), and the beryl a clear blue, green, or pale yellow stone (see EB. s.v.). Myres, however (EB. iv. 4808), argues in favour of malachite (green carbonate of copper), ‘common in Egypt in all periods, obtained from the Sinaitic mine district,’ and also other sources of copper, as Cyprus, and known likewise in Babylonia and Assyria.
a jasper] Heb. yâshepheh, ὀνύχιον, beryllus (but see on ‘diamond’ in v. 18): Ezekiel 28:13, Revelation 21:19. In all probability the green jasper is intended.Verse 20. - The fourth row a beryl, and an onyx, and a jasper. If the identifications above suggested are allowed, two at least of these translations must be rejected. We have supposed the third stone in the first row to have been the "beryl," and the third in the second the "onyx." Perhaps we should translate, "a turquoise, a sardonyx, and a jasper." (See the comment on ver. 9.) Their inclosings. Rather, "their settings," as in ver. 17. Exodus 28:25) golden plaits, golden borders (probably small plaits in the form of rosettes), and two small chains of pure gold: "close shalt thou make them, corded" (lit., work of cords or strings), i.e., not formed of links, but of gold thread twisted into cords, which were to be placed upon the golden plaits or fastened to them. As these chains served to fasten the choshen to the ephod, a description of them forms a fitting introduction to the account of this most important ornament upon the state-dress of the high priest.
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