2 Samuel 5:4
David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(4) Thirty years old.—This statement of the age and of the length of the reign of David (which is repeated in 1Chronicles 29:26-27, at the end of the history of David’s life) shows us approximately the length of time since the combat with Goliath as some ten or twelve years. It also proves that the greater part of Saul’s reign is treated very briefly in 1 Samuel, and further shows that David was seventy years old at his death.

2 Samuel 5:4-5. David was thirty years old when he began to reign — At this age the Levites were at first appointed to begin their ministrations, Numbers 4:3. About this age the Son of David entered upon his public ministry, Luke 3:23. And it is the age when men come to their full maturity of strength and judgment. In Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years — By this it appears it was immediately after his third unction that he made the attempt upon Jerusalem, mentioned in the next verse, otherwise he could not have reigned there so long.5:1-5 David was anointed king a third time. His advances were gradual, that his faith might be tried, and that he might gain experience. Thus his kingdom typified that of the Messiah, which was to come to its height by degrees. Thus Jesus became our Brother, took upon him our nature, dwelt in it that he might become our Prince and Saviour: thus the humbled sinner takes encouragement from the endearing relation, applies for his salvation, submits to his authority, and craves his protection.The age of David is conclusive as to the fact that the earlier years of Saul's reign (during which Jonathan grew up to be a man) are passed over in silence, and that the events narrated from 1 Samuel 13 to the end of the book did not occupy more than 10 years. If David was 20 years old at the time he killed Goliath, four years in Saul's service, four years of wandering from place to place, one year and four months in the country of the Philistines, and a few months after Saul's death, would make up the 10 years necessary to bring him to the age of 30. 3. King David made a league with them in Hebron before the Lord—(see on [260]1Sa 10:17). This formal declaration of the constitution was chiefly made at the commencement of a new dynasty, or at the restoration of the royal family after a usurpation (2Ki 11:17), though circumstances sometimes led to its being renewed on the accession of any new sovereign (1Ki 12:4). It seems to have been accompanied by religious solemnities. And some odd months, as it follows. David was thirty years old when he began reign,.... Over Judah, which was the age of his antitype Christ, when he entered upon his public ministry, Luke 3:23,

and he reigned forty years; and six months, as appears by 2 Samuel 5:5; but the months are not mentioned, only the round number of years given: two reasons the Jews (a) give for this; the one, that he fled six months from Absalom; the other is, that he was ill in Hebron so long, and therefore are not reckoned.

(a) Hieron. Trad. Heb. in lib. Reg. fol. 77. I.

David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years.
EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
4. thirty years old] The prime of life: the age at which the Levites entered upon their duties (Numbers 4:3): at which young men commenced to take part in public business in Greece: at which Joseph was made ruler over Egypt (Genesis 41:46): at which Jesus Christ was “anointed with the Holy Ghost” in His Baptism, and began His public ministry (Luke 3:23).

4, 5. The compiler of Chronicles omits these verses here, but inserts the substance of them in 1 Chronicles 29:27.Verse 4. - David was thirty years old. As David was probably about eighteen or nineteen years of age at the time of his combat with Goliath, the events recorded in 1 Samuel 17-31, must have occupied about ten or eleven years. But David rewarded them very differently from what they had expected. He replied, "As Jehovah liveth, who hath redeemed my soul out of all adversity, the man who told me, Behold, Saul is dead, and thought he was a messenger of good to me, I seized and slew at Ziklag (vid., 2 Samuel 1:14-15), to give him a reward for his news: how much more when wicked men have murdered a righteous man in his house upon his bed, should I not require his blood at your hand, and destroy you from the earth?" The several parts of this reply are not closely linked together so as to form one period, but answer to the excited manner in which they were spoken. There is first of all the oath, "As truly as Jehovah liveth," and the clause appended, "who redeemed my soul," in which the thought is implied that David did not feel it necessary to get rid of his enemies by the commission of crimes. After this (2 Samuel 4:10) we have an allusion to his treatment of the messenger who announced Saul's death to him, and pretended to have slain him in order that he might obtain a good reward for his tidings. כּי, like ὅτι, simply introduces the address. בּעיניו ... המּגּיד is placed at the head absolutely, and made subordinate to the verb by בו after ואחזה. לתתּי־לו, "namely, to give him." עשׁר is employed to introduce the explanation, like our "namely" (vid., Ewald, 338, b.). בּשׂרה, good news, here "the reward of news." The main point follows in 2 Samuel 4:11, beginning with כּי אף, "how much more" (vid., Ewald, 354, c.), and is introduced in the form of a climax. The words משׁכּבו ... אנשׁים are also written absolutely, and placed at the head: "men have slain," for "how much more in this instance, when wicked men have slain." "Righteous" (zaddik), i.e., not guilty of any wicked deed or crime. The assumption of the regal power, which Abner had forced upon Ishbosheth, was not a capital crime in the existing state of things, and after the death of Saul; and even if it had been, the sons of Rimmon had no right to assassinate him. David's sentence then follows: "And now that this is the fact, that ye have murdered a righteous man, should I not," etc. בּער, to destroy by capital punishment, as in Deuteronomy 13:6, etc. דּם בּקּשׁ ( equals דּם דּרשׁ, Genesis 9:5), to require the blood of a person, i.e., to take blood-revenge.
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