2 Samuel 5:22
And the Philistines came up yet again, and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim.
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EXPOSITORY (ENGLISH BIBLE)
(22) Came up yet again.—As David had not followed up his victory (probably because he was not yet in condition to do so) the Philistines repeated their attack in the same place.

2 Samuel 5:22-23. And spread themselves — The expression intimates, that they were very numerous, and made a very formidable appearance. So we read, Revelation 20:9, of the enemies of the church going up on the breadth of the earth. But the wider they spread themselves, the fairer mark they are for God’s arrows. And when David inquired of the Lord — Though he had been successful before, yet he would attempt nothing further without God’s direction; to whom he knew he owed his former victory. He said, Thou shalt not go up — That is, not directly, to fight in a pitched battle as before. So the following words explain it. But fetch a compass behind them — Where they least expect thee. God’s purposes and promises do not exclude or render unnecessary men’s endeavours.5:17-25 The Philistines considered not that David had the presence of God with him, which Saul had forfeited and lost. The kingdom of the Messiah, as soon as it was set up in the world, was thus attacked by the powers of darkness. The heathen raged, and the kings of the earth set themselves to oppose it; but all in vain, Ps 2:1, &c. The destruction will turn, as this did, upon Satan's own kingdom. David owns dependence on God for victory; and refers himself to the good pleasure of God, Wilt thou do it? The assurance God has given us of victory over our spiritual enemies, should encourage us in our spiritual conflicts. David waited till God moved; he stirred then, but not till then. He was trained up in dependence on God and his providence. God performed his promise, and David failed not to improve his advantages. When the kingdom of the Messiah was to be set up, the apostles, who were to beat down the devil's kingdom, must not attempt any thing till they received the promise of the Spirit; who came with a sound from heaven, as of a rushing, mighty wind, Ac 2:2.And there they left their images - An indication of the precipitancy of their flight, and the suddenness with which the Israelites burst upon them like a "breach of waters." The King James Version rendering "Burned them," does not give a translation (compare the margin), but a gloss, warranted by the explanation given in marginal references 22. the Philistines came up yet again—The next year they renewed their hostile attempt with a larger force, but God manifestly interposed in David's favor. The Philistines came up again, doubtless with greater force, as those that saw their all lay at stake. And the Philistines came up yet again,.... And, as Josephus says (z), with an army three times larger than the former:

and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim; in the same place where they were before, 2 Samuel 5:20.

(z) Antiqu. l. 7. c. 4. sect. 1.

And the Philistines came up yet again, and spread themselves in the valley of {g} Rephaim.

(g) Meaning the valley of giants, which David called Baalperazim, because of his victory.

EXEGETICAL (ORIGINAL LANGUAGES)
Verse 22. - The Philistines came up yet again. Their first defeat had probably not been accompanied by much slaughter; for David's men were few in number, though brave as lions. Retreating then to some distance, the Philistines called in their garrisons, and waited also for reinforcements from home, and then advanced again to the same spot. And as David was prepared to attack them in front, he also must now have gathered round him the chivalry of Israel. Elishua is written incorrectly in 1 Chronicles 3:6 as Elishama, because Elishama follows afterwards. There are two names after Elishua in 1 Chronicles 3:6-7, and 1 Chronicles 14:6-7, viz., Eliphalet and Nogah, which have not crept into the text from oversight or from a wrong spelling of other names, because the number of the names is given as nine in 1 Chronicles 3:8, and the two names must be included in order to bring out that number. And, on the other hand, it is not by the mistake of a copyist that they have been omitted from the text before us, but it has evidently been done deliberately on account of their having died in infancy, or at a very early age. This also furnishes a very simple explanation of the fact, that the name Eliphalet occurs again at the end of the list, namely, because a son who was born later received the name of his brother who had died young. Eliada, the last but one, is called Beeliada in 1 Chronicles 14:7, another form of the name, compounded with Baal instead of El. David had therefore nineteen sons, six of whom were born in Hebron (2 Samuel 3:2.), and thirteen at Jerusalem. Daughters are not mentioned in the genealogical accounts, because as a rule only heiresses or women who acquired renown from special causes were included in them. There is a daughter named Thamar mentioned afterwards in 2 Samuel 13:1.
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